Duzhupiao (China)

Name of sport (game): Duzhupiao

Đẩy gậy (Vietnam)

Name of sport (game): Day gay
Name in native language: Đẩy gậy
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

The sport is being practised mainly on the premises of the mountainous provinces, inhabited by a variety of ethnic minorities, such as Son La, Hoa Binh or Lay Chau, while some of the events take place in larger cities, such as the capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi.


Đẩy gậy is a traditional Vietnam sport. The competition usually takes place at the beginning of spring, during holidays, cultural and sports festivals. Each generation of players passes on the experience and techniques of the next generation.


It is a relatively easy sport, but requires the participant to be extremely strong, dexterous and agile while duelling with an opponent. Usually, it is being practised using two meter bamboo stick painted white and red. The participants compete within a circle with a diameter of 5m. The winner is decided upon pushing the opponent out of the aforementioned circle within 2 to 3 rounds.

Current status:

Every 2 years national minority tournaments take place on a national scale, in which Đẩy gậy is the main sport in the competition program. Every year there are also national championships that show traditional Vietnam sports and allow the recruitment of young athletes who contribute to the development of ethnic sports in Vietnam.


Day Gay 1Day gay

Gada (India)

Name of sport (game): Gada
Name in native language: Sanskrit: गदा gadā, Tamil: gadai, Malay: gedak Old Tagalog: batuta

Digor or Degor (Bhutan)

Name of sport (game): Digor, Degor
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):



Digor is a traditional target-based sport of Bhutan, which has some similarities to boules or petanque. This sport is traditionally played by village men all around Bhutan. The game is slightly different in various regions. Organized games between neighbouring villages are now rare. Today the game is played for social reasons, mostly at annual religious festivals. Sometimes it involves a bet that concerns the organization of the event, where the loser must engage in its preparation to a large extent, while the winner has fewer tasks to do. This type of betting takes place among local communities or among friends.


The digor (degor) is a traditional game played in Bhutan, which is often mistakenly described by foreign authors as a type of shot put. There are many elements that make it different from the shot put game (including the way of throwing). It is played with a pair of round flat stones, which are thrown in the direction of two wooden targets placed on the ground roughly 20 meters apart.
The only required equipment is a pair of flat round stones for each player. The size and weight of the stones vary, depending on player’s strength and preferences. A player can have as many stones as he wants, but he can throw only twice.
Digor can be a team or individual game. If three people are involved, the game is played individually. If there are four or more people they divide into two teams that compete with each other. The number of players is not limited however too many of them slows down the game. It’s said that optimal number is seven players in each team.

Players try to place their stone as close to the target as possible. The technique of throwing is similar like in softball. Players who throw later can hit opponent's stones, throwing them out of the scoring area and replacing them with their own stones. This is more difficult when the stones which were thrown first were heavy and large. Usually, players prefer heavier stones because they are difficult to move and at the same time they can be used to knock out opponent's stones.

Points are counted when all the stones have been thrown. A point is given if the distance between the stones and the target is smaller than the distance between the thumb and the middle finger of the outstretched hand. If two or more opponent's stones fall in the same range, the one nearest to the peg scores a point. If all the stones in the scored area belong to one team, the team scores a point for each stone. There is no defined number for points to be scored to end a game, but the limit is usually set to 21.

Current status:

Sport practiced

Sources of information :

Bhutanese traditional sport – Degor – on Trans World Sport. (2012, May 26). Retrieved from Trans World Sport’s Youtube Channel:


Ding-He-Zi (China)

Name of sport (game): Ding-He-Zi (Olive nut drop game)
Name in native language: 顶橄榄核/顶核子游戏 (in Shanghai dialect)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):



Ding-He-Zi is a traditional children’s game originated from Shanghai-the city which has the largest population in China. But now it is played everywhere in China.

Ding pomnik1

The game has a 200-year history which is believed from local workers from 19th century.

Ding pomnik 


The equipment is very simple. All you need for this game are two olive nuts (one painted in black, one painted in white) and a target board (made of plastic or paper).

Ding plansza
The olive nut is usually 3cm in length. The target board is 1mx1m in size and has three circles painted on it. Three circles are 10cm, 20cm, 40cm in diameter.


The aim of the game is to drop the black olive nut to hit white olive nut(the goal) and make the white olive nut bounce out of circle. The further the white olive nut bounce from the center, the more points you will get.

Ding ustawienie

1. Before the game, the white olive nut (the goal) is placed on bullseye of the target board.

2. The player stands outside the outer circle of target board and has their feet apart.

3. Then the player picks up the black olive nut with his thumb and forefinger(left or right hand).The player must keep a straight body and cannot bend his knees before dropping the black olive nut.

4. When he/she is ready, the referee will allow him/her to drop the black olive nut. When dropping the black olive nut, he/she is allowed to incline the body no more than 10 degrees and the hand holding the black olive nut is not lower than his/her neck.

5. After dropping, he/she scores points according to the position of the white olive nut (goal):
a. 1 point if the white olive nut leaves the bullseye and is located inside the 10cm-diameter circle,
b. 3 points if the white olive nut is located between 10cm and 20cm-diameter circle.
c. 5 points if the white olive nut is located between 20cm and 40cm-diameter circle.
d. 10 points if the white olive nut is located outside the 40cm-diameter circle.
e. If the player does not hit the white olive nut, he/she scores no points.
f. If the white olive nut is located on the line between two score zones, he/she scores the higher points.

6. Each player has 5 chances to drop the black olive nut in 2 minutes in this game. After each drop, the white olive nut(the goal) is resettled on the bullseye of target board.

7. The final score of a player is the total store of 5-chance drop. When it comes to a draw, players are given another 5 chances to play until the champion is decided.

8. Variation: In an informal game, you could change the points of different score zones.

Ding gra

Ding gra1

Ding gra2

Current status:

Practiced sport

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

It improves aiming skills and patience and it is suitable for people of all ages. And it is one of event games on annual Shanghai Folklore Games Festival.


Shanghai Community Sports & Games Association
Huangpu District, Shanghai, China
Tel:+86 21 6327 3227

Huangpu District Sports Bureau
300 East Yan’an Road, Shanghai, China
Tel:+86 21 6466 2776
Email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sources of information :


Djarazandj (India)

Name of sport (game): Djarazandj
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):


Gateball (Japan)

Name of sport (game): Gateball
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Started in Japan in 1947, they play in Japan, China, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, Macau, South-America. Since a few years they started playing first in Australia, afterwards in New-Zealand. The last years it started up in Europe in countries like Belgium, France, Switzerland, Germany. Recently they started in Africa.


Gateball was invented in Japan by Suzuki Kazunobu in 1947.
At the time there was a severe shortage of rubber needed to make the balls used in many sports. Suzuki, then working in the lumber industry on the northern island of Hokkaido, realised there was a ready supply of the wood used to make croquet balls and mallets. He revised the rules of croquet and created gateball as a game for young people.
Gateball first became popular in the late 1950s when a physical education instructor introduced gateball to the women’s societies and senior citizens’ clubs of Kumamoto City. In 1962, the Kumamoto Gateball Association was formed and established a local set of rules. This version of the game became known nationally when it was demonstrated at a national fitness meeting in Kumamoto in 1976. Shortly afterwards the gateball’s popularity exploded as local government officials and representatives of senior citizens’ organisations introduced the sport around the country.
In 1984, the Japanese Gateball Union (JGU) was founded. Under the leadership of its inaugural chairman, Ryoichi Sasakawa, the JGU developed a unified set of rules and organised the first national meeting. The following year, the JGU joined with five countries and regions, China, Korea, Brazil, United States of America and Chinese Taipei, to form the World Gateball Union (WGU). The WGU has since been joined by Bolivia (1987), Paraguay (1987), Peru (1987), Argentina (1989), Canada (1989), Singapore (1994), Hong Kong (1998), Australia (2003) and Macao (2005).
Today more than 10 centenarians play gateball in Japan.
The last years it started up in New-Zealand, in Europe and recently in Africa.


Gateball is based on croquet.
Gateball is a mallet sport derived from aspects of Croquet. The two teams use five balls each, either
red or white depending on the team, and play in an alternating fashion between red and white, from numbers one to ten. Each player wears their number of the playing order, also shown on their own ball (“stroker’s ball”), and plays the same ball throughout the game.

We also can play in doubles or singles. This happen more and more.
Each team tries to get its own balls to pass through as many gates as possible and hit the goal post (‘Agari’). You win a point by passing a gate in the right sequence, and also have the right to “stroke” again. One point is given for every gate the ball passes in order, and two points for then hitting the goal post, for a total of five points for a finisher. To decide the winning team, each player’s scores are totalled at the end of the game, and the team with the higher score is declared the winner.
The balls are played from the starting zone in front of hoop 1 (see layout diagram, over). The sides decide by tossing a coin which will start. The first team to play uses red balls, with odd numbers. The other uses white balls, which have even numbers

Once your ball has passed the first gate, if you hit another ball (called a “touch”), you have once more the right to stroke again, provided that both your and the other ball stay inside the boundary line.

Having made a successful touch, you must now “spark”. This means, you pick up the ball touched and bring it back into contact with your own and, placing your foot (your toes, really) on your own ball so that it doesn’t move, stroke again so as to drive the touched ball to the desired position.
The sparked ball must move at least 10 cm, unless it hits the goal post in turn. Following a spark, you stroke again, but cannot “touch” the same ball twice in a turn.
If you touch in the same stroke as successfully passing a gate (a “pass touch”), after sparking you then get 2 more strokes.

An out-ball cannot touch any other ball or pass a gate until the turn after it is stroked back into court. Whenever any ball goes out of court, it is placed at a point off court 10cm from where it crossed the inside line.

The balls have to pass through the gates in a set sequence and direction (see diagram). To pass the gate successfully (“tsuka”), the ball must pass completely the gate.
To pass gate1, a ball must not touch another ball on the way towards it. A ball that has passed the gate line of gate 1, but not by more than the diameter of one ball, may be temporarily moved if it obstructs the passing of another ball.

Each player has only 10 seconds in which to stroke their ball from when called upon to stroke, or from when the right to keep playing occurs. The referee on-court keeps count of the 10”, and warns the player when 8” is reached.
Players normally wait at the courtside near their own ball, to save time when it is their turn to stroke again. The ball of a player who does not stroke within 10 seconds stays where it was until that player’s next turn to stroke, although such a ball in court can still be touched and sparked by others.

When you spark team mate’s ball, you make positive tactical choices about positioning, bearing in mind the playing order.
For example, the first team to pass a ball through gate 1 successfully (say with ball 1) will often place that ball between gate 2 and the boundary. That way, it is dangerous for the other team to try and touch without a ball going out, whilst if a ball from the other team (say ball 2) takes position to run gate 2 on its next turn, it can be touched by ball 1 and made use of, to benefit the first team.
Instead of positioning in front of gate 2 therefore, ball 2 might go to guard the access to gate 3.
If you spark a ball from the opposing team, you might send it to where your team’s balls can use it, bearing in mind the number sequence of those balls which are due to play before it. Alternatively, you might send it out of court, meaning it then needs to use its next turn just to come back into court, without being able to touch or to pass a gate.

When you see 2 balls of your own team near each other, a player will normally try to take position for a “double touch”. A ball that touches 2 others in the same stroke gains the right to spark twice in succession, which is a very powerful attacking tactic. The other balls touched are temporarily moved until it is their turn to be sparked.


The game ends after 30 minutes. When time is called (“game set”), if the leading team is playing, the next player from the other team has one last turn. If the following team is playing when “game set” is called, the game ends when that stroker’s turn is completed
The referee(s) in charge of the game decides on whether a ball is in or out, whether a gate has been successfully passed, a touch made, a successful spark, a fault committed (such as hitting your own ball twice in a stroke), the goal post hit, and when the 10 seconds has elapsed for each player to stroke.
The arm gestures made by the referees and linesmen, at the same time as they call the decision, indicate to the recorder, players and spectators what is happening:-
“Play ball” (30’ starts) is by the hand outstretched in front at face height, palm down.
A turn is notified by the arm(s) raised, fingers showing the stroker’s number.
“Standby” by bringing one arm up to point, then down to the side when the 10” starts.
“Gate Tsuka” is pointing and looking sideways in the direction of the successful pass.
“Touch” is pointing forwards, at the place where the touch occurred.
“Out” is by raising one arm straight above the head, palm facing forward.
“Safe” (the ball is still in) is by sweeping the forearm outwards across the body
“Time”, when the 30’ clock is stopped temporarily, is by a T-shape with 2 hands.
“Foul” is by bringing a clenched fist to shoulder height.
“Agari” when the goal post is hit, is by raising the arms to a V-shape above the head.
“Game set” at the end is with forearms crossed above the head.

The world championships have been dominated for several years by players from China and Japan. At the 2014 world championships staged in Niigata(Japan), 96 teams took part from Australia, Brazil, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Paraguay, the Philippines, South Korea, Russia, Switzerland, Europe and the USA.

Current status:

Today various international championships and tournaments including the World Championships and Asian Championships are held periodically in countries around the world.

The World Gateball Union, gateball’s global umbrella organization, has member organizations from 16 countries and regions. Gateball is played by more than 10 million people in more than 40 countries.

Gateball League starts in 2016 in Europe.
The concept consists in tournaments of 3 days where beginners are teached on first day.The second and third day, players participate both on single and double tournament.
In singles, players can ask for assistance of a coach. In doubles we assign beginner to more experienced player.
Because people are travelling, we try to have an equal number of games for all participants.
The Gateball League is open for everyone. We had already people coming from Japan, Australia .. participating. We keep a ranking for single players which allow us to build double teams from equal level. People like to have close games


If you enjoyed this game, and would like more information about where and when to play gateball, contact Bernard Thys.
Bernard Thys was captain of a team representing Europe at World Championships Gateball in Japan in September 2014 and he is the creator of the Gateball League in 2016.
Please contact Bernard Thys at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Additional contacts for Gateball League:
John Swabey from Germany : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Laurent Gueraud from France : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
David Underhill from Switzerland : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

World Gateball Union/Japan Gateball Union
Toranomon 35 Mori Bldg. 7F, 3-4-10, Toranomon, Minato-ku,Tokyo 105-0001 Japan
Mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Gatka (Punjab, India)

Name of sport (game): Gatka
Name in native language: Punjabi: ਗਤਕਾ Urdu: گٹکا gatkā

Ghe Ngo (Vietnam)

Name of sport (game): Ghe Ngo
Name in native language: Đua Ghe Ngo
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Town of Sóc Trăng in the province Sóc Trăng - Vietnam


A boat was an important element of the Khmers culture, who used it to navigate the waterway, avoiding wild animals. The waterway also solved the communication issue, as it was difficult to build and maintain roads and bridges in those conditions.
Over time, the boats became faster, which was caused, by tactics during the ethnic war and many conflicts. Tuk Ngo boats were created to escape or quickly attack. Therefore, the boat became an inseparable element of the life of people from these areas, as it was a method of transport used to transfer people and cargo.
There are many legends about the beginnings of the Ngo boat race.
One says that Princess Neng Chanh (Nàng Chanh) disobeyed the will of the king. When he wanted to punish her, she got into the boat and tried to escape by the river. Soldiers, however, caught her and executed on the orders of the king. Every year, a race is organized to memorialize this event.

Another story tells about the tradition of bringing Buddhist monks to temples by water, due to the difficulty of travelling by land or danger of wild animals. Initially, first rafts were built from bamboo, then from wood by carving its interior, creating a type of TukNgo boat. With time, rivalry began, who would transport monks faster and for this reason, the tradition of boat racing was born.
According to another legend, the Khmers boat race of Sóc Trăng took place for the first time in Pem Kon Thô, (today Vàm Dù Tho) in the district of Mỹ Xuyên in the province of Sóc Trăng. Ngo boats from Bạc Liêu, Kiên Giang and Trà Vinh congregated in a place where the water flowed calmly and the river was wide to compete with each other. There, Ngo boats from the Bạc Liêu and Kiên Giang regions had a fairly easy task, because the stretch of the river is straight and the water flows calmly. Later, when the region became crowded, intensive commercial traffic appeared, the rivalry moved from Vàm Tho to the Ompuyea River, i.e. Nhu Gia, in the municipality of Thạnh Phú, Mỹ Xuyên District. This theory seems most likely, according to monk Thạch Sô Tưm in his 2009 publication on the Ngo boat race. He adds that the Ngo boat association has existed for a long time (from around 2071 according to the Buddhist calendar, and in 1528 - according to the Gregorian calendar, corresponding to the era of the first king An Chanh) and it was the custom of the inhabitants of the ancient country of Ba Sac (now Sóc Trăng) to organize this type of racing.

During the French colonial period, the Khmers were forced to transfer the race to the Om Puie river (that is, the river Nhu Gia today in the municipality of Thạnh Phú, Mỹ Xuyên District, in the province of Soc Trang). However, from time to time (1972–1974) races were organized at Kinh Sáng in the city of Sóc Trăng. After regaining independence, races took place on the Nhu Gia River until the early 1980s. However, due to the scale of the project, the race was officially moved to the Maspéro River (city of Sóc Trăng) in the centre of the capital of the province of Sóc Trăng.


Originally, Ghe Ngo was a boat made entirely of a tree trunk, but today finding such large and long trees is difficult, so boards are used. Ghe Ngo has a length of 25 to 30 m, and in the middle, in the widest place, is about 1.1-1.2 m. The boat should resemble a snake, hence the front (head) is raised, but the rear rises even higher (tail). There are 24 to 27 benches for two people along the entire length of the boat. Each boat must provide space for 40 to 60 people (e.g. the Ngo Bốn Mặt (Sóc Trăng) boat could accommodate 53 people in 2013, the Ông Mek boat (Trà Vinh) 57 people).

To strengthen the boat, builders fasten long wooden beams along the central part. Beams must be made of hardwood, usually about 0.2 m in diameter. At the bow of each boat, two eyes are placed to look for the best and safest path. This custom is known in the region, where every boat used for fishing or transport has such signs, and although the Ngo boat is used only for competitions, it also has those eyes.
Each boat has its own symbol, which is a hallmark, allowing the boat to be identified and memorized. Often this symbol is also supposed to show the power of a racing boat and refers to the tradition of each temple. Very often the symbol is animal (e.g. a bird, a tiger, a snake) because they represent power, speed or perseverance. People think that the boat has the power connected with a particular animal. On the entire length, there are patterns and colors referring to the selected symbol. So, if the symbol is a snake, then the motifs on the sides are chosen so that the boat imitates the movement of the snake on the run.

ghe ngo8

Ngo boats are property of the temples. Each town, for example, a commune and village, has its own temple. Ngo boats are stored inside the temple, cover by a specially prepared roof.
Every activity related to the boat is accompanied by special ceremonies. Starting with the initiation of construction, through launching, ceremonial moving and storage of the boat, everything has its own specific order and ritual. According to the concept of "all spiritual things", the Khmers believe that the Ngo boat is also holy. One of the most important stages is the boat launch ceremony before the race. Not only competitors take part in it, but also the community belonging to the temple (pagoda). Gifts are brought and placed on the mat in front of the boat, and the Master of Ceremonies also burns incense. Everything is accompanied by music, sometimes with specially prepared words for the occasion. Khmers believe that the patron of the Ngo boat is Neng Khmau (Neng Teo), which is why the costumes are often used in the ceremony. When the music ends, the priest kneels before the sacrifices and begins to pray for the favour of the boat. The prayer is repeated three times, and then the boat is symbolically smeared with coconut oil, then the heads of the competitors who promise to unite to win the race are lubricated. When the boat is carried to the river, the procession is accompanied by music.

ghe ngo7

Because the boat is long and its front and back are bent upwards, it is easy to lose balance and cause overturn. Therefore, before placing the boat on the water, the players train on land to achieve the desired rhythm of work, and above all to learn to synchronize movements. The competitor must be healthy and practice in accordance with the allocated place on the boat. So first, there are exercises on land, then on a wooden platform on a pond or river, and only after mastering the movements and their coordination with the whole team, a trial on the boat is made.
The teams compete in two competitions: Swimming 1200 meters for the male team and 1000 m for the female team. The prize for the men's boat team was 150 million VND in 2017, and 100 million for the women's team (this was the third festival from October 28 - November 3, 2017).

Current status:

Ghe Ngo Boat Racing called The Ngo Sóc Trăng Boat Racing Festival (Đua ghe Ngo Sóc Trăng) are part of the Óc om bóc Festival, which takes place in Sóc Trăng, in the south of Vietnam. During the Festival, many events related to the culture of the Mekong Delta nations are organized, including moon worship ceremony, lamp releasing ceremony, but the most famous and popular part is the boat racing. Since 2013, these races are not only regional but also national competition.
The festival always gathers dozens of Ngo boat teams from around the region that participate in the competition.

Originally, the Ngo boat races, on "Oc-Om-peel", were held at Nhu Gia, then at Kinh Xáng - Sóc Trăng Town, and again at Nhu Gia. However, in order to provide the opportunity to watch the race for an increasingly number of spectators in more comfortable conditions, also with the possibility of accommodation, the Ngo boat race was organized in Sóc Trăng. From now on the festival takes place there.
In 2017, 62 teams took part in the race (50 male teams and 12 women's teams), in 2018 there were 51 boat teams (41 male teams and 10 women's teams) from the province of Sóc Trăng, Bạc Liêu, Cà Mau, Hậu Giang, Vĩnh Long. In 2018, nearly 100,000 people from many provinces (e.g. Vĩnh Long, Hậu Giang, Bạc Liêu, Cà Mau) and cities came to Soc Trang to participate in the Festival and watch the Ngo boat races. In 2019, 60 Ngo boats participated in the race.
Boats also participate in international competitions and shows in Cambodia, Singapore, China and Thailand.

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

For Khmers, the boat has many meanings and unique cultural values. Ghe Ngo is not a product of a person or group of people. Each boat is built by people belonging to a specific pagoda and represents it in competition on the water. Therefore, victory or defeat is the triumph or failure of the pagoda and people who belong to the same group.
Spiritual elements are also one of the important factors that help boats succeed.

Khmers traditional boat races Ghe Ngo (Đua ghe Ngo Sóc Trăng) Ngo Sóc Trăng Boat Racing Festival are part of one of the major festivals that take place in Sóc Trăng, in the south of Vietnam. The practice of this tradition is testimony to the unique traces of Khmers culture, cultivated for many generations, showing the attachment of the Mekong Delta community to faithful and loyalty to their culture and the joint-life of three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Khmer and Chinese. Ngo Boat Festival and races are the elements that unite this community and allows to build harmonious relationships between these groups.

The Khmers for a long time have been growing rice. It was not an easy task due to frequent natural disasters, wind, rains or floods. So the "Oc-om-boc" ceremony meant celebrating the rice harvest on lunar days, when the rain and wind cease and the water slowly recedes, starting the dry season after hard days of work. The festival was originally associated with the end of the collection. It was when the Khmers organized a ceremony to show their gratitude for agricultural produce. Although people are very busy with work, they devote their time to training before competitions that are important to them, because they show the culture of the region and allow to cultivate old traditions. Since ancient times, every year, on the day of the full moon of the tenth lunar month in the Khmer calendar, the moon ceremony - Oc - Om - boc is celebrated. This is an important holiday because the moon gives people happiness. It had the character of a family holiday, with a solemn meal, wishes, but also has a social character, because it created an opportunity to have fun and gave a chance for sports competition.

The desire to maintain tradition contributes to supporting social unity and promoting cultural identity through this traditional sport. Tug of war (rope pulling), martial arts and boat races were practiced, but performances were also prepared. Ngo boat races and performing arts are the two most popular elements of this holiday. To take part in the race, boats are renovated, restored, sometimes rebuilt for long months. When the competition day comes, the men and women dressed in festive clothes come to the festival to participate in this unique event, which is the Ngo boat racing.

In addition to the main attraction, which is the Ngo boat race, the festival consists of many different events, including moon worship ceremony, repair of the Ca Mau boat, exhibitions, culinary and sports festivals, competitions, music and dance performances, theatre plays, as well as scientific conferences.
Since 2017, the Ooc Om Boc Festival and the Ngo Soc Trang boat races have been taken care of by the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism of Vietnam (previously the Ngo Boat Racing Festival had a regional character from 2013), which allowed for improving organization and proper preparation competition tracks on the river for Ngo boats.

Sources of information :




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