Asia

Istlish taban (Saudi Arabia)

Name of sport (game): Istlish taban
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Saudi Arabia

Kalaripayattu or Kalari (Kerala, India)

Name of sport (game): Kalaripayattu
Name in native language: കളരിപ്പയറ്റ് – from Malayalam - Kalari (school) payattu (fight)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Kerala state, South West coast of India.

History:

Kalaripayattu is one of the oldest martial arts practiced to this day and its origins can be traced back to the ancient times. The very first mention of the Kerala martial art existence comes from the third century AD Tamil literature. However, it was not until the eleventh century that Kalaripayattu took the form we know today. It comes from the Malabar coast of the Ćera kingdom on which the Brahmins, or Hindu monks, have been practicing the martial arts in shrines called salad and ghatika since ancient times.
Kalaripayattu owes its existence to the war that broke out between the kingdom of Ćera and the kingdom of Ćola. This conflict lasted (with intervals) a hundred years and claimed hundreds of victims. At that time, many people were called to the army and brahmins were often responsible for their training. It was during the decades of trainings when Kalaripayattu eventually developed, and yet, the state of Ćera got defeated losing its lands to many feudal lords.
After the war it were the brahmins who contributed greatly to the survival of Kalaripayattu; they kept chronicles and trained new adepts. Some brahmins have been associated with this martial art for centuries - for example, the commander of the Calikut forces during the war with Portugal in 1509. This is where the connection between this martial art and Hinduism comes from. However, many of them abandoned monastic lifestyle and are described in medieval writings as cutthroats with bloodstained swords. Another factor that influenced the popularity of Kalaripayattu was instability in the region. Small feudal states led constant battles with each other, which led to the necessity of knowing the fighting techniques by the lower castes. In some parts of Kerala, compulsory education was in force and children from the age of 7 had to learn martial arts.
The golden age of Kalaripayattu ended in the eighteenth century with the arrival of the British. They brought firearm, the use of which meant that knowledge of martial arts was no longer necessary. Furthermore, Europeans banned the practice of Kalaripayattu what as a result, almost eradicated the martial art and its traditions.
Since India regained its independence in 1947, Kalaripayattu is experiencing a renaissance, not only in Kerala, but throughout the entire subcontinent. Numerous Bollywood films contain references and threads about this martial art. In 1995, the Indian Federation of Kalaripayattu was established.

Description:

Kalaripayattu is practiced in a special building called kalari. In the past there were several types of kalari. To this day, only two of them have remained popular – ceru (used for traditional medicine purposes) and kuzhi (training place).
Traditional kalari were built around a rectangular pit with dimensions of 12 x 6.5 meters. The bottom was encircled by clay walls and these on the other hand were strengthened with wooden beams. The 9 meters building was topped with a gable roof made of coconut leaves. This specific construction helped keeping the temperature as low as possible in very hot Keral climate. It was thanks to the light roof which made it possible for the cool wind to get inside at the same time blocking sunlight. What is more the high ceiling facilitating the circulation of air and the way kalari was build into the ground helped keeping the inside temperature low.
It is worth mentioning that even in Kerala, many masters transfer their kalari from traditional huts to modern buildings. One of the reasons is, paradoxically, the costs - the roof of coconut leaves must be renewed each year, and the professionals are very few.
Training
Before going down to the kalari, you should take off your shoes. At the entrance, a ritual follows. The student enters the kalari with his right foot, kneels and successively with his right hand touches the earth, then the head, and the heart. It has a symbolic meaning - what you learn in a building is understood by the brain and then - by the heart.
When we are in the kalari, the training begins. It is divided into three parts. The first one is preparation - the participants dress in langutti, it is loincloth covering the genitals and buttocks. This skimpy outfit is associated with the Indian climate, in which practicing sports in many layers of clothing is impractical. Next, the participants apply oil on the whole body. Oil helps the body to cool down when it is heated up due to ardent practise or protect the body from cold during the monsoon season but what is most important, oil increases flexibility of the body. Then comes the time for religious rituals. Hindus pray for their gods while Muslims look towards Mecca. After that, there are rituals of thanksgiving addressed to the gods, to the weapons, to the teacher, and many others. Finally, the exercises begin.
Warm up and repetition of the fight forms and kicks (more on that later) are followed by four sections of fighting - unarmed, fighting with sticks, fighting with white weapons and unarmed fights with special emphasis on marmas (by Tamil Medicine key points of the body used in Kalaripayattu during massage and fighting). When the first section ends, less advanced students have to leave the kalari. This elimination process is repeated after subsequent sections. Weaker and less advanced students can not look at the next stages of fighting so that they do not get bad habits out of them.
The section that exercises unarmed combat begins with mudras. These are Hindu and Buddhist symbolic gestures that strengthen the body (also used in yoga). Then, adavu exercises are performed (shifting from one fighting position to another, push-ups, squats and jumps). Mudras are repeated 6 times and adavu 18.
All the excercises are followed by armed training. In that section students practice using sticks, white weapons and emphasis on marmas. Both white weapons and ordinary sticks are highly respected. Grabbing a weapon, the warrior must apply it to his head, and then to the heart - a gesture analogous to that which he performs while entering to the kalari.
Some of the techniques:
• Six basic kicks:
-Nerkal – the kick is delivered above the head, with a straight knee and the toes extended.
-Vitukal – circling kick, from outside to inside; the stretched leg is circled in front of the body, with the foot reaching above the head.
-Akamkal – circling kick, from inside to outside; the stretched leg is circled in front of the body, with the foot reaching above the head.
-Konkal – similar to nerkal, but the right kick now goes towards the left shoulder, and left leg to the right shoulder.
-Tiriccukal – three straight kicks thrown by the same leg, while pivoting two Times 180 degrees on the other leg.
-Iruttikal – after having thrown a straight kick, the kicking leg sweeps back a bit behind the body. At that moment the practitioner shifts body weight to the hind leg, and squats down on that leg, while the inactive leg is kept forward.
• Vadivu, or the body positions during the fight (together with the cuvadu, that is feet positions during the fight form adavu):
-Gaja vadivu – pose of the elephant – feet parallel at shoulder width while crouching in a way that the knees are bent at 90 degrees.
-Simha vadivu – pose of the lion– similar to the position of the elephant but feet are put perpendicular and a bit than shoulder width apart.
-Asha vadivu – horse stance – one leg straight put behind, the other with the knee bent at 90 degrees put in front
-Kukkuda vadivu – stance of the cock – right leg raised with the big toe pointing up.
-Sarpa vadivu – stance of the serpent – similar to the position of the horse but upper body is more upright. In that way it is easier to turn 180 degrees.
-Marjava vadivu – pose of the cat – a crouching pose.

Weapons:
-Kettukari – long stick – should be slightly longer than the user's height.
-Ceruvadi – short stick
-The Otta – curved stick
-Kathi – a traditional Keralian dagger with a handle made of deer antlers
-Vettukathi – Tamil machete
-Valum and Curika – swords
-Valum Parichayum – sword and shield, the most traditional weapon, symbol of Kalaripayattu
-Kuntham – Spear
-Maru – axe
-Urumi – a flexible sword - used in many Indian martial arts; also the last weapon to learn becouse an inexperienced user could have cut his head off. Its users wrap the sword around the waist.

Kalaripayattu weapons

Current status:

Kalaripayattu is still practised. Most schools can be found in Kerala, the birthplace of this sport (Calikut, Ernakulam, Wayanad). In addition, we can find sport centers in many large Indian cities (Delhi, Bangalore, Cennai). The Indian Kalaripayattu Federation has been operating since 1995 but this sport also gains in popularity in the west (Great Britain, Germany, France, etc.). In Poland, we find one such a center in Wroclaw.

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Kalaripayattu has been influencing the culture of southern India for centuries. Another thing worth paying attention to is the Keral theater form called katakali. It binds traditional Indian theatrical motifs (dance, song, music) and elements of choreography borrowed from Kalaripayattu.

Contacts:

Indian Kalaripayattu Federation:
Bhodhi Dharma Institute of Martial Arts, Poonthura P.O,
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, PIN-695026
Mob: 9447866944
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Webside: https://www.indiankalaripayattufederation.com/

logo indian kalaripayattu federation

Parashurama Vallabhatta Kalari Academy: http://www.kalaripayattubangalore.com/

Parashurama Vallabhatta Kalari Academy logo
Alleppey Kalaripayattu: https://www.facebook.com/Ekaveerakalari/

alleppey kalaripayattu logo
Australian School of Kalaripayattu: https://www.kalaripayattu.com.au/

australian school of kalaripayattu logo

 

Calicut Kalaripayattu school: http://www.hindustankalari.com/
Ernakulam Kalaripayattu school: http://www.enskalari.org.in/
Wayanad Kalaripayattu school: http://kadathanadankalari.in/
Delhi Kalaripayattu school: http://kalarikendramdelhi.com/
Bangalore Kalaripayattu school: http://www.kalaripayattubangalore.com/
British Kalaripayattu school: http://www.kalarippayat.co.uk/home
French Kalaripayattu school: http://www.kalarippayat.asso.fr/
German Kalaripayattu school: http://kalari-center.de/

Sources of information :

Patrick Denaud, Kalaripayat: The Martial Arts Tradition of India, Destiny Books, 2009
Chirakkal T. Sreedharan Nair, Kalarippayattu: The Complete Guide to Kerala's Ancient, Westland Books Pvt Ltd, 2015
Phillip B. Zarrilli, When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art., Oxford University Press, 2001
Dick Luijendijk, Kalarippayat, 2008 - https://books.google.pl/books?id=hISikpYZ9hYC&pg=PA87&lpg=PA87&dq=kalari+building&source=bl&ots=Vlhz31XytS&sig=ACfU3U0V-0Q3il2qiSnv70lZo5U9ju6Mkg&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjvkc7ivobhAhVkonEKHcs7AXMQ6AEwBnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=kalari%20building&f=false
P. Balakrishnan, KALARIPPAYATTU: History and methods of practicing the martial art of Kerala, Poorna Publications, 2003
Ranjan Mullaratt, Kalari Margam - Ancient secrets for modern living, 2014
John Shaji, Kalaripayattu, The martial and healing art of Kerala - https://www.academia.edu/29708005/KALARIPPAYATTU_The_Martial_and_healing_art_of_Kerala
https://martialkingdomindia.blogspot.com/2019/06/kalaripayattu.html?fbclid=IwAR14GMt5O4fL0nWhdsL45-44xMY2SkapA6-l_fub_RI93uODdgZffTYtkfE

Video:
http://www.indiatraveltimes.com/kalarippayatu/kalari-circumstances.php 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Kerala#Second_Cheras 
http://www.indiatraveltimes.com/kerala/kalari.php 
http://www.enskalari.org.in/history-of-kalari/ 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kalarippayattu_films 
https://www.indiankalaripayattufederation.com/kalaripayattu.php 
https://books.google.pl/books?id=hISikpYZ9hYC&pg=PA87&lpg=PA87&dq=kalari+building&source=bl&ots=Vlhz31XytS&sig=ACfU3U0V-0Q3il2qiSnv70lZo5U9ju6Mkg&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjvkc7ivobhAhVkonEKHcs7AXMQ6AEwBnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=kalari%20building&f=false 
https://www.kalari.in/kalaripayattu/levels-weapons/ 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malappuram_Kathi 
https://www.quora.com/What-is-called-Vettukathi-or-Vettothi 
https://www.quora.com/Which-are-the-best-Kalaripayattu-schools-in-India 
An example kettukari fight - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4em3udgHIzs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oI84oM_bJeg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUUNgyH_47Y
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXmpNFIgqwU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUgJNebKmXA 

 

Source of photos in this article:
https://karmagroup.com/blog/kalaripayattu-original-martial-art/
https://neuronerdz.com/about-kalarippayattu-the-worlds-first-martial-art/
https://www.thestatesman.com/features/vidyut-jammwal-popularise-kalaripayattu-indian-martial-art-1502925234.html
https://pl.pinterest.com/hashimhmk301/kalari/
https://televisionofnomads.com/kalaripayattu-kerala-indian-martial-arts/
https://adventurerivercruises.com/kerala/experiences/cultures/kalaripayattu-a-traditional-martial-arts-performance/
https://pl.pinterest.com/pin/134615476332160705/
https://chinesemartialstudies.com/2017/05/25/an-opportunity-to-document-the-indian-martial-arts/kalaripayattu/
https://www.keralatourism.org/kalaripayattu/origin
https://www.piggyride.com/course/kolthari-kalaripayattu-classes
https://www.keralatourism.org/kalaripayattu/angathari/urumi
https://www.thehindu.com/society/kalarigram-where-kalaripayattu-reigns-supreme/article24348791.ece
http://www.travelviewpoint.com/kalaripayattu-the-oldest-martial-art/

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfEffect_of_Kalaripayattu_on_physical_fitness_variables.pdf

pdfIndian_Martial_Arts.pdf

pdfKalaripayatt__the_ancient_indian_art_of_self_defence.pdf

pdfRESPIRATORY_FUNCTIONS_IN_KALARIPAYATTU_PRACTITIONERS.pdf

Kalik (Timor-Leste)

Name of sport (game): Kalik
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Kalik game has been practiced/played mainly among young people (7-17 years old) in the Bobonaro, Ermera, Manatuto, Manufahi, Baucau, Viqueque, and Lautem for generations throughout the history of Timor-Leste’s society.

History:

In the past, Kalik game is one of the traditional games played by children’s and young adults in Timor-Leste. From the very early times of Portuguese era there was various traditional games played by children and young adults in Timor-Leste with the purpose of recreation and amusement among Timorese people. Even though there are difference in language, food habits and others however, the traditional games such as Kalik game were more or less same though the name and their rules differ from one place to another.
From the interview with KIIs and FGDs, the majority of respondents pointed out that Kalik game first time introduced by Timorese ancestors long time ago before the Portuguese arrival.
By the time this game was transmitted over the generation until now. This game rooted in Timor-Leste however, there is no clear date regarding when and where Kalik game was first introduce and play. Most of respondents described that this game mostly played during Portuguese time and by then it slowly disappeared as Indonesia invade Timor-Leste.
This study also revealed that respondents generally hear and learn for the first time how to play Kalik game from their grandfather and dad’s (22.7%), follow their colleagues or seniors (61.2%), and learn by their own and teachers (16.1%). This shows that there is no formal training or instructions on how to play Kalik game, rather follow-up players who play Kalik game in school and in other places.
According to Mr Tomas das Neves (Lia Na’in – Ermera) many of them have no doubt heard stories from their parents and grandparents of their idyllic village lives and the Kalik games they played during their joyful childhoods. But for most of children’s and young adults today, the games they have come to know are the single player ones on a bright screen and other games. Back in the day, Kalik games were creative – play out of pure imagination and items lying around – and children, as well as young adults alike, invented them to keep themselves entertained.

Description:

Hana Kalik
Hana Kalik is a target and shooting game. It requires high accuracy at different distances. The Kalik is accelerated and shot with a quick movement of the hand. Players or teams that oppose each other try to shoot down the Kalik of the opponents. This game is generally played by children and young adults between 7-17 years of age.
Background
Hana Kalik is a traditional game from Timor-Leste. It was popular among children and young adults in a pre-colonial time and during the colonialization era of Portuguese. Hana Kalik is still well known especially among the elder population and in some rural areas the tradition is still alive.
The Name
The name commonly used by the Timorese people is Hana Kalik (lit. shoot Kalik). The Kalik or St. Thomas’ bean is a large, woody, branched, evergreen climbing vine that grows about 100 m long and 18 cm in diameter. The seeds are used by locals for its medicinal and cosmetic properties, wild food and used to play Hana Kalik.

The game can be played individually and collectively as a group. Played individually can be up to 5 players; whiles in groups, the two groups or team that against each other must be with the same players. The player in each team can be between two to five players. The Kalik game generally performs to strengthen the friendship, school break, family or community gathering, and herding livestock.
Since the detailed rules of the Kalik game are never written and no information available on how it was evolved and changed over time, as well as the game, is no longer played in most territories of Timor-Leste. The following rules of Kalik games presented below are constructed mainly based on the information collected throughout the study. Consequently, the set of rules derived from this study might be not exactly accurate as the original version of Kalik game that was once played in the past. The following section provides the minimum requirements needed to perform the game, general rules and objectives associated with Kalik game, details of modality and its specific rules associated with it.

Minimum Requirement
To be able to perform Kalik game, the minimums requirements need to be available are:
❖ Playing Field - Kalik game is played on a piece of flat area (no muddy, no grass, and no rocky on the surface). There is no limit to the area for the game to be played but the wider the better;
❖ Equipment - Kalik bean, the minimum number of Kalik bean needed is equal to the number of players.

General rules and objectives of Kalik game
It is commonly agreed that Kalik game is a competition for accuracy in shooting or archery.
The aim is to shoot/hit or throws down Kalik bean from the opponent to reach the agreed winning/championship/finish points that are decided before started the game.

How to start Kalik game

1. The Kalik game begins by determining who will play first, and it can be decided in various ways:
a) Flip a Kalik bean (mark wet in one side and dry on another side of the Kalik) to decide who or which team plays first. Before flip of Kalik bean, the player/team chose the wet or dry sites. The sites that show up are the one that will play first.
b) Each player cast the Kalik game into the pit, who is nearest or enters the pit, will plays first, and follow by the second nearest, and so on;
2. Players that play first take a stand or position to shoot first, and the other players/team putting or locating their Kalik bean at the predetermined position;
3. If the first player succeeds in shooting/arching the opponent's fruit then he will continue to shoot. If it fails, then it will be replaced with the next player. This cycle continues until one player/team reaches the winning points;
4. End of the game - the game is finish when a player/team has reached the winning point agreed by the players or succeeded in shooting down all the opponent’s Kalik beans.

Shoot Kalik hand position by Malte Maschitzki

Scoring/point
Scoring or point in playing Kalik game occurs when the players/team members:
❖ Succeeded in shooting down/out/shoot the opponent's Kalik bean;
❖ Managed to throw the kalik bean into the pit/hole;
❖ The wining point ranging from 20 up to 100 points depending on the agreement made by players before started the game.

Penalties
❖ The Kalik bean used for shooting or archery must not fall within one foot of the Kalik that is being shot;
❖ If there is collusion between two Kalik beans during the initial throw to determine who/which team plays first.

Modalities of Kalik game
The result of the study shows that the modality of Kalik game can be categorized into five models. This includes
1) the hole model
2) The rectangular line model
3) The standing model
4) The Jot down model
5) The kneeling model.
However, between those models, the hole and standing models are the two models most popular one being played in the past, and it is still played by children in village of Wairoke today. The following section provides details of these models:

The Hole Model
One of the most popular models of playing Kalik game in Timor-Leste is the Hole model. This model can be play by throwing Kalik to the hole. This is quite similar to the game of marbles.
Technically, it can be played one on one or in pairs/groups. Each player holds one Kalik, then makes one hole in the middle and stands a line 2-5 meters away from the hole towards the player. The hole model has two types of game with slightly different of its playing field/design as shown in Figure 2a and 2b. In addition, the details of a specific rule, winning points, penalty, and determination of the winner for these two types are presented in the table.
Kalik TSG Timor Leste

The player with the closes Kalik into or enters the hole is the first to play or to start the game, while the player who drops the Kalik with the farthest distance from the hole is the last to play.
Then the first player starts throws/hana his/her Kalik, to the opponent’s Kalik. One shoot collects one point until it reaches the score that is set and agreed upon before starting the game (20-100 points). If the first player manages to shoot/throw another Kalik without misses until it reaches the agreed score, then the game is over, and he is the winner. However, if he misses once in his throw, he stops, and the second player continues the game and so on until the game is over.

The Standing Model
The standing model of Kalik game can also be played individually (one on one up to five players) or collectively in groups. Each player holds one Kalik, and the first player/team to play first takes a stand behind the line, about 1-5 meters away from the first standing Kalik, and the opponents positioned their Kalik standing straight in the vertical direction to the players.
Kalik TSG Timor Leste standing modell

Square Line Model
The Square line model of Kalik game can be played individually/singles and groups. This type of model played by two opposing teams. The objective for the players or team is to shoot or
knock Kalik outside the square/rectangle line. The model of square/rectangle has two different types in which Kalik is standing - frontal and lateral, and shared the same rules 3-5 Kalik are located/positioned inside the square with the distance of 30-50cm between Kalik.

Jot down model (apontador)
The jot down model of Kalik game is generally played singles. Two until five individuals opposing each other play it. The objective for the players is to shoot or knock the Kalik that positioned in predetermined position. To begin play the jot down model, flip of Kalik or the agreement between players to decide who play first and so on. The rule apply in jot down model is simple. Players take position behind the boundary line; the first player shoot the Kalik, if player manage to shoot or nock the Kalik, then he continues to shoot. If he fails to knock the Kalik, then it continues by second player and so on. The winning point is between 20 -50 depend on the agreement between players prior to the game started. Every 20 – 50 points collect one victory. Players that collect more victory are the winner at the end of the game.

Kneeling model
Kneeling model of Kalik game is generally played singles. It is played by two until five individuals opposing each other. The objective for the players is to shoot or knock the Kalik that positioned in predetermined position. To begin play the kneeling model, flip of Kalik or the agreement between players to decide who play first and so on. The rule apply kneeling model is the same as standing model. The only difference is that the position of player when shooting in a kneeling position.
Players take position behind the boundary line; the first player shoot the Kalik, if player manage to shoot or nock the Kalik, then he continues to shoot. If he fails to knock the Kalik, then it continues by second player and so on. The winning point is between 20 -50 depend on the agreement between players prior to the game started. Every 20 – 50 pints collect one victory. Players that collect more victory are the winner at the end of the game.

Current status:

Kalik game is a game that played by children and young adults in schools, at home, in paddy field, at parties/ceremonies and in any places that favoured to be play. In some places (e.g., Cribas and Daisua) if there is a party or cultural ceremony, there will be participation of families who are invited. Those families who have children’s or young adults they always brought Kalik bean in their purse or pockets. The purpose is for children’s or young adults to play without interrupt the party/ceremony.
Playing Kalik game in Timor-Leste is unique. This is because the game can gather a number of people to play together as a group or as individual - one and one in a small flat land without any resources except Kalik bean. In addition, it is unique because there is no need for referee in the game as everything is based on the agreement between players before started the game.
Thus, there is no limited time in playing such game – if the players feel boring or hungry then the game will be stop. Indeed, at school there is time where students are allow playing during break time (around 30 minutes).
In relation to whether there is a formal competition of Kalik game in the past, most respondents described that there is no formal competition for kalik game at school and in other places. The main reason for this is because at that time there is no one has an initiative to formally introduce this game for formal competition. Kalik game actually is a community game where children’s and young adults can play in their leisure time with the main objective of creating more friends, happiness, and enjoys the game.

Community Wairoke watching Kalik game by Malte Maschitzki

Community Wairoke watching Kalik game

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

While History is the story of integration and disintegration of human aggregates, Culture has been the greatest integrating force in men (Munshi 1965). The first characteristic of the culture is continuity. It comes from the past, adjusts itself to the present and moves forward to shape the future.
In a primitive society like Timor-Leste (pre-colonial context) the use of the written form as means of communication is unlikely considered. Oral language/expression has been used as the instrument of communication process; words are directly linked to events, meeting and things that take place. Furthermore, the community that rich in oral tradition (legends, myths and stories) such as in Timor-Leste, there is an indication of the consciousness of an ancient community (Vincent, 2016). Through the interview and FGDs with respondents it revealed that in some areas (e.g., Sanirin, Ponilala, and Venilale) talking about Kalik always link to culture (Uma Lulik) and therefore Kalik become a kind of product that anyone who come from Uma Lulic link to Kalik cannot discuss or talking about Kalik without permission from the elders or representative of that Uma Lulik. The reason is that it believes there will a consequence in terms of sickness or death for someone who discuss about Kalik without noticed to the elderly. However, this kind of permission do not have a relation with playing Kalik game; means anyone else can play Kalik at any time anywhere as they agreed to play. In addition, for those who not belong to that Uma Lulik they can discuss or talking about Kalik freely.
One of the very popular stories on Kalik told in this study, particularly in the municipality of Bobonaro, Ermera, and Baucau is the story of interpretation on the creation where heaven and earth are bound together by Kalik. According to tradition, people who were interviewed told that in long-gone days, earth and heaven are closed and connected by Kalik. One day an old woman went up to heaven to fetch fire; while in heaven she saw children playing ‘hana osan mutin’ (osan mutin is a kind of coin), and one of the osan mutins that was shot fell right near her feet. The old woman stepped on the osan mutin with her feet, so that the osan mutin would not be seen by the children (she plans to take that coin) because she took too long to get back to earth. This makes her husband angry, so he used a sword to cut the Kalik. Since that incident, heaven and earth separated and drifted away forever. According to oral tradition told by those interviewed in Atabae that Kalik to have risen in Gagaplau mountain of Atabae; while people in Sanirin and Ermera say that Kalik is raised in the village of Leimea leten, Atsabe from where the old women claimed from earth to heaven. This specific results on the story about Kalik obtained in this research, is not much different compared to the study on oral tradition stories in Timor-Leste reported by Vincent (2016).
Additionally, there are uma lisan (Clan) in Venilale and Bucoli, in the district of Baucau named: Luli Heni, if it is translated laterally means sacred or taboo kalik (luli means: sacred and Heni means Kalik in local dialogue) Furthermore, Kalik game in Timor-Leste is a kind of game that shows the representations, expressions, knowledge, skills and the object (Kalik) and cultural that associated with Timorese community or groups in the past - and in some cases individual and groups recognize as part of their cultural heritage.

Sources of information :

Books:
Luta Hamutuk, 2015, Promove jogu tradisional hodi defende Timor-Leste iha Futuru, Secretariadu Estadu Juventude no Disportu, Dili

Articles:
Erskine, W., Xoimenes, A., Glazebrook, D., Da Costa, M., Lopes, M., Spyckerelle, L. and Williams, R. 2015, The role of wild foods in food security: the example of Timor-Leste, The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer, ISSN 1876-4517 Volume 7 Number 1

Paulino, V. 2016, Writing and translating Timorese oral tradition, Configuracoes (online), http//journals.openedition.org/10.4000/configuracoes.3284

The information contained in the article comes from the following sources:
Estudu konaba identifikasaun Jogu Tradisional ‘KALIK’ iha Timor-Leste Husi Vicente de Paulo Correia, PhD; Matias Tavares, PhD; Oscar da Silva, MSc Faculdade Agricultura Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e (UNTL) no GIZ Timor-Leste (Juventude ba Mudansa), 2021

Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
All photos were provided by Malte Maschitzki, Development Advisor, State Secretary for Youth and Sport Timor-Leste

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfExecutive_summary_EN_-_Traditional_game_Kalik_in_Timor-Leste.pdf

pdfRelatorio_Peskiza_TET-_Jogu_Tradisional_KALIK_iha_Timor-Leste.pdf

pdfResearch_Report_EN_-_Traditional_Game_KALIK_in_Timor-Leste.pdf

pdfSumario_executivo_PT_-_Jogo_Tradicional_KALIK_Timor-Leste.pdf

pdfSumariu_ezekutivu_TET_-_Jogu_Tradisional_KALIK_Timor-Leste.pdf

Kae Htoe Boe (Myanmar)

Name of sport (game): Kae Htoe Boe
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Myanmar

History:

Kae Htoe Boe is the traditional sport of the Karenni or Red Karen ethnicity of Kayah State Myanmar, on the Thai border. This sport is identical to Korean ssireum and yet there is no evidence of any cultural contacts with Korean people until recently. Why this would be the situation is a mystery.

Sources of information :

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwWc-gH4CdY&t=451s&fbclid=IwAR0Bms7mh7iFv_Kvj_wx8z1xRmF_LyEVW3WI6Nw9YqvpBpj-eVYeFPy6Zxc 

Jorabin (Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria)

Name of sport (game): Socks playing
Name in native language: Jorabin
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Jorabin is a nostalgic game which is played in all regions of Kurdistan, also in other countries where Kurds nation live like Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria.

History:

The origin of this game is unknown. Many elderly people believe that it comes from ancient times in Mesopotamia. However, there are not any written documents that could prove this information. This game is a heritage that its philosophy is very interesting and special. During long and boring nights of winter and autumn people in villages did not have many interestings activities to spend free time Therefore, creation of such interesting and competitive game makes spending time joyful and enjoyable. Jorabin is not a game just for entertainment. Players and people connection is an opportunity to exchange ideas and their familiarity whith each other.

Description:

Name of this game seems quite logical because it is played by using socks, but the socks which are used in the game are special and knitted by women, therefore they considered as a handcraft in Kurdistan, moreover, they are not wearable. Five or ten pairs of socks are necessary to begin the game. Socks lay in two rows (five socks in the front row and another five are set behind the front row). You can see the arrangement of socks in the photo1. One of the main objects in the game is an apple oak that is shaped and smoothed skillfully (an apple oak is seen in the photo1).

Jorabin1

The number of players (Jorab Baz (means player in Jorabin)) in each side are five, six, seven or more (five players in each team is more usual). Interestingly, there is no limitation in age and sex of players in Jorabin. A five years old child can compete with a ninety years old man or woman.
Referee by tossing a coin gives the apple oak to the team which is selected by the coin. The most experienced player usually puts the socks in front of himself (photo2) and hides apple oak in one of his hands and puts his hand in all socks (you are not allowed to use both hands); his task is to put the apple oak in one of the socks. This action needs cleverness because any clue or symptom can be traced by their rivals, therefore they can find the sock with the apple oak in it. To clearly understand the game better in this article we have two teams (team1 and team2).

Jorabin2

Success in the first GOAL
In an example, team1 has the apple oak and their leader or one of the other players is putting the apple oak in socks. If team2 finds the apple oak in the first try (at this moment the attacker, before putting his hand on the selected sock, says GOAL and attacks the sock), the referee gives them ten points. When the team is not able to find the right sock, there are different modes that will be investigated in the following paragraphs. Before illustrating other modes, pay attention to pic1 to understand the game efficiently. In picture1 each circle is a sock. As a result of an unsuccessful attack of team2. there is no choice for team2 by guessing and choosing some of the remaining socks. We have two parts with different modes in each of these part. 1. Successful guesses 2. unsuccessful guesses.

Successful guesses
Team2, for example, choose seven socks of nine remaining socks (they can choose from one sock to eight socks in this stage, it depends on their decision).
In this mode the apple oak is in team2 guesses, therefore the leader of team1 says “apple oak is yours”. Now, players of team2 prioritize these seven socks from A to G and the leader or one of the players as an attacker puts his hand on the first sock which has the least priority, in this example sock G has the least priority (pic2). There are three modes. (mode1) If the attacker before putting his hand on sock G says GOAL and the apple oak be in the sock G, team2 is successful in getting its second GOAL and team2 takes 11 points (the second GOAL has 11 points for the team).
(mode2) Suppose that the attacker before attacking doesn’t say GOAL and the apple oak is in sock G in this mode team2 lose 7 points and team 1 gets 7points; the referee writes seven points for team1, because team2 has selected 7 socks of 9 socks.
(mode3) in this mode the attacker doesn’t say GOAL before putting his hand on sock G and also the apple oak isn’t in sock G. Team2 increase the possibility of finding the apple oak and removes the socks G, therefore finding the apple oak is more feasible. After removing sock G, the attacker of team2 puts his hand on the sock with sixth priority, for example, sock F. In this stage mode1, mode2 and mode3 may happen to sock F too. If mood 1 occurs team2 gets 11 points. If mood 2 occurs team1 gets 6 points and if the mood3 occurs the game for team2 is going on. The game will be continued for all socks until finally team2 finds the apple oak and gets 11 points for its second goal It is possible that in any of remaining socks team2 isn’t be able to have a correct guess and gives points to team1 and the leader of team1 again has a chance to hide apple oak in socks. Whenever team2 gets the second GOAL, the apple oak is for its players and they place the socks in front of themselves to hide the apple oak in the socks and team1 has to find it.

Unsuccessful guess
In this level the apple oak isn’t in team2 guesses, therefore the apple oak is the two remaining socks R1 or R2(pic3). there are two moods. (mode1) If the team2 attacker puts his hand on sock R1 and the apple oak is in it, team1 gets 10 points because 7 guesses of team2 added to 2 remaining sock 7+2=9 but in this game, we don’t write 9 points and 9 considered as 10, therefore referee writes 10 points for team1. (mode2) In this mode, the attacker puts his hand on sock R1, but the apple oak isn’t in this sock, surely the apple oak is in R2 sock and team1 gets 8 points.7 guesses of team2 added to 1 remaining sock that apple oak was in it (R2.7+1=8).
When the team1 points are given to them. The team1 leader has a second chance to hide the apple oak in the socks.

1. The game will be continued until one of the team gets 150 points earlier and that team is the winner
2. Only one player can put his hand on socks and attack or say the decision of the team to their competitors.
3. In all parts of the game, referee investigates the game and writes the points to teams, Moreover, any conflict can be solved just by referee decision.
4. Spectacles are not allowed to intervene in the game or disturb the concentration of players.
5. The size of socks is identical and they are made of the same materials.
6. During the game you should respect your rival and referee controls any harsh of players.
7. hen the leader is putting the apple oak in the socks, the players of another team are not allowed to touch the socks until he finishes his activity.
8. It is very important that before attacking to the GOAL the attacker must say GOAL, otherwise, the referee doesn’t accept the GOAL and rejects it.

Current status:

Fortunately, Jorabin in spite of all other alternatives in this modern time is very popular among Kurdish. Kurdish respect for their customs and traditions is famous among other nations in the middle east.

Jorabin3

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Many people believe that Jorabin is the most popular and well- known traditional game in Kurdistan and it is registered as intangible heritage in Iran.

Jorabin5

Contacts:

Some clubs during these years have established in different cities although these clubs are not registered in official and governmental centres. There are a lot of players (Jorab Baz) from different generations that is one of the unique characteristics of Jorabin.

Jorabin4

Sources of information :

https://www.irna.ir/news/83374844/
https://www.irna.ir/news/83229830/164
https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/ HYPERLINK "https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/6435985/برگزاری-دوازدهمين-دوره-مسابقات-جورابين-شهرستان-مهاباد-جام-فجر"6435985 HYPERLINK "https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/6435985/برگزاری-دوازدهمين-دوره-مسابقات-جورابين-شهرستان-مهاباد-جام-فجر"/
http://www.iribnews.ir/fa/news/ HYPERLINK "http://www.iribnews.ir/fa/news/2032723/قهرمانی-تیم-معلم-مهاباد-درمسابقات-جورابینجوراب-بازی-جنوب-آذربایجانغربی"2032723 HYPERLINK "http://www.iribnews.ir/fa/news/2032723/قهرمانی-تیم-معلم-مهاباد-درمسابقات-جورابینجوراب-بازی-جنوب-آذربایجانغربی"/
http://silvananews.ir/

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