Asia

Zurkhaneh or Pahlevani (Iran)

Name of sport (game): Zurkhaneh, Zurxane, Zoorkhaneh, Zoorkhanei
Name in native language: varzesh-e pahlavāni (Persian: آیین پهلوانی و زورخانه‌ای‎, "heroic sport") or varzesh-e bāstāni (ورزش باستانی; varzeš-e bāstānī, "ancient sport")
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Part of Asia (Iran and adjacent lands, Azerbaijan)

History:

Traditional Iranian wrestling (koshti) dates back to ancient Persia and was said to have been practiced by Rustam, mythological Iranian hero of the Shahnameh epic. While folk styles were practiced for sport by every ethnic group in various provinces, grappling for combat was considered the particular specialty of the zourkhāneh. The original purpose of these institutions was to train men as warriors and instill them with a sense of national pride in anticipation for the coming battles. The Mithrāic design and rituals of these academies bear testament to its Parthian origin (132 BC - 226 AD). The zourkhaneh system of training is what is now known as varzesh-e bastani, and its particular form of wrestling was called koshti pahlevani, after the Parthian word pahlevan meaning hero.
When the Arabs invaded Persia around 637 CE, the zourkhānehs (training places) served as secret meeting places where knights would train and keep alive a spirit of solidarity and patriotism. Invaders repeatedly targeted the houses of strength to discourage rebels, but new ones would always be organized in a different location. Following the spread of Shia Islam, and particularly after the development of Sufism in the 8th century, varzesh-e pahlavani absorbed philosophical and spiritual components from it. Religious hymns were incorporated into training, and the first Shi'ite imam Ali was adopted as the zourkhāneh patron.
Varzesh-e bastani was particularly popular in the 19th century, during the reign of the Qajar king Nāser al-Din Shāh Qājār (1848–1896). Every 21 March on Nowruz (the Iranian new year), competitions would be held in the shah's court, and the shah himself would present the champion with an armlet (bazoo-band). The sport declined following the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty in the 1920s and the subsequent modernisation campaigns of Reza Shah, who saw the sport as a relic of Qajarite ritual. Reza Shah's son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi took a different approach, emphasizing Iran's ancient Persian roots as an alternative to the heavily Islam-based identity of less developed nations in the Middle East. He attempted to revive the tradition and practiced it himself, and during his reign, the last national competitions were held.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 the tradition lost some of its popularity as the new regime discouraged anything tied to pre-Islamic paganism, which included the Gnostic and Mithraic chants and rituals of the zourkhāneh. This did not last, however, as the Islamic Republic eventually promoted varzesh-e bastani as a symbol of Iranian pride and culture. Today, varzesh-e pahlavāni is touted as the reason why Iranians are regular winners at international wrestling and weight-lifting events.
Zurkhaneh combines martial arts, calisthenics, strength training and music. Recognized by UNESCO as the world's longest-running form of such training, it fuses elements of pre-Islamic Persian culture (particularly Zoroastrianism, Mithraism and Gnosticism) with the spirituality of Shia Islam and sufism. Practiced in a domed structure called the zurkhāneh, training sessions consist mainly of ritual gymnastic movements and climax with the core of combat practice, a form of submission-grappling called koshti pahlavāni.

Bargirs kettlebells of Zorkhana Middle Ages Museum of History of Azerbaijan
Bargirs - kettlebells of Zorkhana. Middle Ages. Museum of History of Azerbaijan.

 

Description:

Both seniors and youth can take part in the competition in various weight categories, individually or in teams. Each team consists of 10 members:
- From 5 to 7 athletes,
- One “Master of Ceremonies”, who among others hits the gong,
- One trainer,
- One team captain.
In case when the team consists of more than 5 athletes, 0,1% of the 6th and 7th member’s score is going to be added to the final score of the team.
Individual competition consist of seven disciplines:
- Sang gereftan,
- Kabbadeh,
- Meel Bazy,
- Charkhidan Whirling: Charkz Teez – Charkz Charmani Charkh tak fer,
- Shelang takhteh
- Professional Meel giri.
Apart from the aforementioned disciplines, there are also wrestling competition being organized in four different weight categories( 60-70kg, 70-80kg, 80-90kg and >90kg).
To calculate total score gained by each team, the following rules are used:

Place

Team competion

Individual competition

Wrestling

Team with 7 members

Team with 6 members

Team with 5 members

Sang gereftan, Kabbadeh, Meel giri, Charkh Teez - Charkh Chamani,  Meel Bazy

60-70 kg, 70-80 kg, 80-90 kg, >90 kg

1.

70
7x10

60
6x10

50
5x10

10 points for each discipline

10 points for each weight category

2.

63
7x9

54
6x9

45
5x9

9 points for each discipline

9 points for each weight category

3.

56
7x8

48
6x8

40
5x8

8 points for each discipline

8 points for each weight category

4.

49
7x7

42
6x7

35
5x7

7 points for each discipline

7 points for each weight category

5.

42
7x6

36
6x6

30
5x6

6 points for each discipline

6 points for each weight category

6.

35
7x5

30
6x5

25
5x5

5 points for each discipline

5 points for each weight category

7.

28
7x4

24
6x4

20
5x4

4 points for each discipline

4 points for each weight category

8.

21
7x3

18
6x3

15
5x3

3 points for each discipline

3 points for each weight category

9.

14
7x2

12
6x2

10
5x2

2 points for each discipline

2 points for each weight category

10.

7
7x1

6
6x1

5
5x1

1 point for each discipline

1 point for each weight category

Excercise zurkhaneh

Zurkhaneh equipments and terms in Iranian Varzesh-e-Bastani (source: http://www.irantourcenter.com/zurkhaneh-iran-traditional-sport/) :
1- Varzesh-e-Bastani (ancient sport): Is a comprehensive physical exercise session of 60 to 90 minutes, consisting of different kinds of physical activities appropriate for the age groups of 16 to 60-70 years old. These exercises were practiced under special customs and rituals established over hundreds of years. Each session of Varzesh-e-Bastani comprises: Warming up, main body of physical exercises, and warming down.
2- Zurkhaneh (home of strength): Is the very specially designed physical Structure, entangling, a myriad of philosophical, religious, cultural and educational Bases, together with the necessary technical facilities and apparatus for the cultivation of the body and the excellence of mind. The entrance door is low so that body of any walk of life at the time of entrance must of necessity bow in respect and enters this sacred place.
3- Bastanikar: Is everybody who practices Varzesh-e-Bastani and possesses a number of outstanding physical and spiritual traits and characteristics.
4- Pahlevan: Is the first champion among other bastanikars of a village, city, Province, country or the world of the time. This title was awarded only to athletes who were recognized as having had reached perfection in the qualities of both physical Prowess and moral virtue. The significance of Pahlevanship has been well resented in the Farsi language literature and culture. As an example, Ferdowsi, in his outstanding poetic book (Shahnameh), pictures Rostam, the Persian legendary Pahlevan, fighting heroically against depravity, vice, and sinful deeds and thoughts in the purest and most literary forms in the tenth century. Pahlevanship exists in daily life of the Zurkhaneh athletes, the most recognized tradition, Golrizan, happens when someone has a financial problem. In such a case after the Morshed bell the ring (Zang) anybody who wants to help, put the money in the special pot during this traditional charity ceremony.
In each Varzesh-e-Bastani session, the Morshed accompanies all the exercises with chanting the epics and poems that describe the braveries and heavenly prowess and heroism of these Pahlevans for the good of the human beings.
5- Gowd: Is the most significant facility where all the activities of the Varzesh-e-Bastani are performed. The floor of the pit is constructed with different layers of, from bottom to top, crushed tumble weeds, a thinner cushion of dried fine straw, a thicker layer of coal ash and finally, a well packed layer of clay or argil in a way to assure softness and flexibility needed for the safety of the Bastanikars during their physical activities. The Khadem (janitor) of the Zurkhaneh makes regularly sure that this floor is sufficiently well packed and humid before the start of every session. To eliminate the detrimental effects of dust and humidity, especially in an indoor and relatively small space such as the Zurkhaneh, the methods of construction of Gowd’s floor are rapidly approaching the ones used in constructing the other sport activities areas like the contemporary running or playing fields.
6- Morshed: Is an experienced Bastanikars who, at the same time, is a well-educated man who also has some talents in music. He is especially competent in providing the different rhythms that are needed for directing the various exercises of a Varzesh-e-Bastani practice session. He does this job by chanting the epic poems and couplets and by playing the Zarb and Zang that he has at hand. Some times there are two Morsheds who in harmony with each other direct the practice session.
7- Zarb: Is a large hemispheric wooden drum, with a skin of deer, stretched over the larger end of it. Zarb is used to give the Indispensable rhythm and cadence for all the exercises through-out the session.
8- Zang: Zang is a bell that hangs within reach of Morshed’s hand. Morshed will play the Zang for purposes such as signal the beginning or the end of an exercise, attract the attention for making an announcement, honor the presence of a Pahlevan, guest, or a social personality and communicate with the Miandar and the other athletes who are performing in the Gowd.
9- Miandar: Miandar performs at the central part of the Gowd. He is the key person and leader of session.
10- Pishkesvat: Is a Bastanikar, who is characterized by a high degree of expertise, experience and seniority. He also assumes the responsibility of teaching the techniques of Varzesh-e-Bastani to younger Bastanikars.
12- Nocheh or Nokhasteh: Is a beginner (novice) in Varzesh-e-Bastani. He is ordinarily under the direction and the apprenticeship of a Pishkesvat. This is the lowest rank in the hierarchy of Varzesh-e-Bastani. The highest rank in Zurkhaneh is Saheb-e Taj (owner of the crown). It is noticeable that the one who is the first to start each one of the individual exercises is the Nocheh who is at the bottom line in seniority. The last athlete who will finish the exercise bout in the individual events is the Miandar.
13- Sar-Dam: Sar means “place” and Dam refers to “speaking or chanting”. From the technical standpoint, this is the Morshed’s rostrum from where he leads the practice session by his chants, Zarb and Zang.
14- Takhteh-Shena: Is a plank that is used for the different types of push up exercises particular to this traditional sport.
15- Meel: Is a big chunk of hard and heavy wood related with the idea of using it somewhat like Indian clubs, however, it differs with them in a number of ways. First, its base is the largest part of it. Second, it is considerably longer, larger and heavier. Third, Meels are used primarily for weight training. Fourth, one pair of Meels is necessary for exercise in Varzesh-e-Bastani. Fifth, the handle of the Meel is a cylindrical piece of hard wood that is fixed very firmly on the top of the Meel.
16- Kabbadeh: Is a bow shaped iron instrument used for weight training in Varzeshe-Bastani. On this instrument in Zoorkhaneh, the string has been replaced by a heavy chain which generally is made of 16 links. In each link there are approximately six metallic discs, each one measuring about the size of a small saucer. Kabbadehs weigh mostly between 11 to 50kg. This weight can be adjusted to athlete’s ability by removing or adding chain links or discs.
17- Sang: Is a huge rectangular piece of hard wood that has some similarities with the ancient shields used to ward off blows or missiles. The side of the rectangular that is moved near the floor throughout the exercise is gently arched. There is a hole at the central part of each Sang with a bar across it that is used as a hand grip around this opening is covered by a soft material to protect the hand. Sangs are used for weight training and one pair of them is necessary for the exercise.
18- Shelang-Takhteh: Is a plank of hard wood. This equipment is used for stretching exercises, muscular endurance and agility of the legs, aimed at running speed and endurance. This is a heavy exercise and 40 to 50 repetitions are considered to be a high performance in this event.
19- Shalvar-e-Bastani: Is a knee-breeches pantaloon that is typical clothing for the Bastanikars. This clothing is made of either leader or of heavy embroidered cloth decorated with elaborate designs and scenes. The firmness and resistance of this kind of trousers make it possible for the athletes to use it as a dependable grip during traditional wrestling of Varzesh-e-Bastani.
20- Kamarband: Is a large and heavy leader belt made especially for Shalvar-e-Bastani. This belt provides a more dependable grip for wrestling specific to Varzesh-e-Bastani.
21- Koshti (Wrestling): Similar to the Sang and the Kabbadeh exercises, Koshti is an individual event that is performed in the Gowd only by a few Bastanicars who are scheduled for the exercise session. The type of Koshti that is performed in Zoorkhaneh looks much like the Greek style wrestling where only the upper body of the wrestler gets involved in the technical pinning and holds of the combat.

Equipments and Instruments zurkhaneh

Current status:

The sport is still being practised. International Zurkhaneh Sports Federation (IZSF), connecting 22 countries involved in the sport, spreads the knowledge of Zurkhaneh. It publishes the rules and broadcasts recent events. Apart from frequent trainings and unofficial games, the official competition (World championships, Europe championships, Asia championships, World Cup and many others) organized by federation, is being held every few months. Apart from the aforementioned competitions, there are also one held for senior, junior or disabled contestants.
In recent years, Zurkhaneh is becoming more and more popular in countries neighbouring Iran, especially in Iraq or Afghanistan. The huge tournament took place in May 2017 in Baku within the framework of 4th Islamic Solidarity Games. Iran won the team competition category.

Contacts:

International Zurkhaneh Sports Federation (IZSF)
No 8, Sepidar St, Africa Ave, Tehran, I.R.IRAN Postal Code: 1518943865
Tel :+98-21-88203115
Fax :+98-21-88203314
Webside: http://www.izsf.net/en
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUrMQ4_CvTHJBt4Hv_SsRAw
IZSC logo
Asian Zurkhaneh Sports Confederation (AZSC)
Tel : +82 51 245 5600
FAX : +82 51 245 5700
E-mail : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Webside: http://www.azsc.asia/
Asian Zurkhaneh Sport Confederation logo

Nepal Zurkhaneh Sport Association
Webside: https://nepalzurkhaneh.wordpress.com/

Nepal Zurkhaneh Sports Association logo

Baltic Zurkhaneh Sports Federation
Webside: http://www.zurkhaneh.lt/en/about-zurkhaneh/the-music-of-zurkhaneh.html
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Baltic Zurkhaneh Sports Federation

 

Portugal Zurkhaneh Sports Association
Webside: https://portugalzurkhaneh.wordpress.com/rule-regulation/
Portugal Zurkhaneh Sports Association logo

 

Uganda Zurkhanes Sports Association
Webside: https://smoothcomp.com/es/club/19576

uganda zurkhaneh sports association logo

Zurkhaneh Sri Lanka
https://www.facebook.com/Zurkhaneh-Sri-Lanka-765392690271302/

Kenya Zurkhaneh Sports Federation
https://www.facebook.com/Kenya-Zurkhaneh-Sports-Federation-1486167324999333/?eid=ARA4vgxTfXwuo1iab2ldMEQV8D-H6XahWwkMQxERrh5NvUlHlvqJafDnajeobp2woWll5S_xewvNsaeb

Zurkhaneh Ferdousi München e.V. - https://www.facebook.com/zurkhaneh/?eid=ARAsGt7ZwjM94cH5X5P5PZKVUCJEaZIKszb8zHJ1MZYFKwD0mvs1jU1zA_J5UxS_aZ3bm3IXHlCWZcnU

 

Sources of information :

Books:
Abbās Kamandi, Varzeš wa sargoḏadšt-e varzeš-e bāstāni-e Kordestān, Sanandaj, 1984
Abassi, Mehdi, Tarikh-e Koshtigari dar Iran (The History of Wrestling in Iran). Tehran 1984
Amirtash, A.M., Zoorkhaneh and Varzesh-E-Bastani. Journal of Movement Sciences and Sports, 2008, 5(1), 59–73
Amirtash, A.M., Varzesh-e-Bastani and Zoorkhaneh. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Microfish Publication, 1980
Angelo Piemontese, Il capitolo sui pahlavān delle Badāyiʿ al-Waqāyiʿ di Vāsfi, AIUON, N.S. 16, 1966, pp. 207-20
Ayria, J., M.S. Thesis: A study of the Persian gymnasium, Zoorkhaneh. C.A. San Joseh, San Joseh State University, 1975
Babayan, S., Zoorkhaneh. Tehran, Iran: Milli, Inc., 1958
Bahar, M., Iranian Mythology. Tehran, Iran, Foundation of Iranian Culture, 1973
Bank Melli, Activity in the Zoorkhaneh, Tehran, Iran: Author, 1971
Bayza’i's, Partaw, Thrtkh-i varzish-i biastint-yi Irirn: Zuikhimnah. Tehran, 1958
Beazaie Kashani, P., Iranian ancient sport, Zoorkhaneh. Tehran, Iran: Heidari, 1958
Behmanesh, A., History: wrestling and myth in Iran. Olympic Review, 307, 209-211, 1993
Devlin Daneshforouz, The History and Traditions of The Zurkhaneh - https://medium.com/@dforouznv/house-of-strength-the-history-and-traditions-of-the-zurkhaneh-4c41c58d569a
Dosabhai, F. K., History of the Parsis, including their manners, customs, religion and Present position, London, Britain: Macmillian and co., 1884
Ensafpour, G., The culture and the history of the Zoorkhaneh and social groups of its Members, Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Art and Culture, The Anthropological Center of Iran, 1974
Ensafpour, Gholamreza. History and Culture of Zoorkhaneh. Tehran: Anthropology Research Essay Collection: Survey and Study on Zoorkhanes of Tehran. Anthropology Research Center, 1975
Farzad Nekoogar, Traditional Iranian Martial Arts (Varzesh-e Pahlavani), Menlo Park, 1996 (http://www.pahlavani.com/)
R. A. Galunov, “Zurkhana: atletchyeskaya arena persii (Zur-ḵāna: The athletic arena of Persia),” Iran (Leningrad) 1, 1926, pp. 87-110
Gaspard Drouville, Voyage en Persependant les années 1812 et 813, 2 vols., Paris, 1819-20; tr. Manučehr Eʿtemād Moqaddam as Safar dar Irān, Tehran, 1985. Ṣadr-al-Din Elāhi, “Negāh-i digar ba sonnat-i kohan: zur-ḵāna,” Irān-šenāsi/Iranshenasi6/4, 1995, pp. 726-45
Givi, M., Zoor-Khaneh: The traditional athletic club, Unpublished Master’s thesis. Colorado, Universiy of Colorado, 1978
Ḡolām-Reżā Enṣāfpur, Tāriḵ o farhang-e zur-ḵāna wa goruhhā-ye ejtemāʿi-e zur-ḵāna, Tehran, 1974
Ḥasan Guša, Varzeš-e bāstāni dar Irān, Payām-e now 3/6, Farvardin 1326/March-April 1947, pp. 47-55
Higher Council of Culture and Art, Tehran Zoorkhanehs: A cultural and and social study, Tehran, Iran: Author, 1976
Ḥosayn Partow Bayżāʾi Kāšāni, Tāriḵ-e varzeš-e bāstāni-e Irān: zur-ḵāna, Tehran, 1958, new ed., Tehran, 2003
Hossein Parto Beizai, Tarikh-e Varzesh-e Bastani (Zoorkhaneh), Tehran 1967
Hosseini, A., R.H. Bastani and H. Sairafi, The first International Tarikhname-ye Varzesh, Iran Zamin, Olympic National Committee press, Iran. Tehran. Iran, 2007
Houchang E. Chehabi, “Jews and Sport in Modern Iran,” in Homa Sarshar and Houman Sarshar, eds., The History of Contemporary Iranian Jews IV, Beverly Hills, 2001
Ilahi, S., Nigahi digar bih sunnati kuhan: zurkhanah, iranshiniast 6, 731-738, 1994
Iraj Bahiri, Zurkhaneh, 2003 (http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/zurkhaneh/zurkhaneh.html)
Jaʿfar Šahri, Šakar-e talḵ, Tehran, 1968
Jacob Eduard Polak, Persien: das Land und seine Bewohner, Hildesheim, 1976; tr. Keykāvus Jahāndārī as Safar-nāma-ye Pūlāk (Īrān wa īrānīān), Tehran, 1982
Jamil Ṭāʿi, al-Zurḵānāt al- baḡdādiya, Baghdad, 1986
Kashani, J., The ethics of the sacred pit, Tehran, Iran. Iran Tribune press 1974
Kāẓem Kāẓemayni, “Zur-ḵāna,” Honar o mardom, N.S., nos. 56-57, 1967, pp. 55-62
Kazemayni, K. and S.S. Babayan, Zoorkhaneh: Iranian Ancient Athletic Exercise. Printed in Iran by Kayhan Printing House, Tehran 1964
Kazimayni, K., Zoorkhaneh or Gymnasium, Tehran, Iran: Melli, Inc, 1963
Kiani, M.G. and Faraji, H., Zoorkhaneh: Historic Training in Iranian Culture. World Applied Sciences Journal, 14(9), 1415–1423, 2011
Klaus Kreiser, Edirne im 17. Jahrhundert nach Evliyā Çelebī: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der osmanischen Stadt, Freiburg, 1975
Luijendijk, D.H., Zoor Khane, Ancient Martial Art of Iran , Boulder, US, 2006
Luijendijk, D. H., The Zurkhaneh in Shiraz, Iran and the Caucasus, 15(1-2), 99–116, 2011
Mahdi ʿAbbāsi, Tāriḵ-e košti-e Irān, 2 vols., Tehran, 1995
Malcolms, J., The history of Persia, Tehran, Iran: Matbouat, 1948
Mehrdad Bahar, Sociology of Zoorkhanes of Tehran. Anthropology Research Center, 1997
Mehrdād Bahār, “Varzeš-e bāstāni-e Irān wa rišahā-ye tāriḵi-e ān,” Čistā 1, October 1981, pp. 140-59; republ. as “Āʾin-e Mehr, zur-ḵāna, ʿayyāri, wa Samak-e ʿAyyār,” in Moḥammad-Mahdi Moʾaḏḏen Jāmeʿi, ed., Adab-e pahlavāni. pp. 323-42
Mohammad-Ghorban Kiani and Hassan Faraji, Zoorkhaneh: Historic Training in Iranian Culture, World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (9): 1415-1423, 2011
Moḥammad-Mahdi Tehrānči, Pažuheš-i dar varzešhā-ye zur-ḵānaʾi, Tehran, 1985
Moṣṭafā Ṣadiq “Gowd-e moqaddas: peydāyeš-e zur-ḵāna,” Honar o mardom, N.S. no. 145, 1974, pp. 55-62
Noṣrat-Allāh Ṣamimi, “Varzeš,” Irān-e bāstān 2, no. 29, 3 Šahrivar 1313/25 August 1934
Patricia L. Baker, “Wrestling at the Victoria and Albert Museum,” Iran 35, 1997
Philippe Rochard, “Le ‘sport antique’ des zurkhâne de Téhéran: formes et significations d’une pratique contemporaine,” unpubl. Ph.D. diss., Université Aix-Marseille I, 2000
Profile of Iran, Zoorkhaneh, Tehran, Iran:Ministry of Art and Culture: Author, 1977
A. Reza Arasteh, “The Social Role of the Zurkhana (House of Strength) in Iranian Urban Communities during the Nineteenth Century,” Der Islam 36, February 1961, pp. 256- 59
Ridgeon, L., The Zurkhana between tradition and change. Iran, 45(2007), 243–265, 2007
Rochard, P., The identities of the Iranian Zūrkhanah. Iranian Studies, Volume 35, Issue 4, 313-340, 2002
Zahary T, Smith, More than One Way to Measure: Masculinity in the Zurkaneh of Safavid Iran, The Willtop Review, Volume 8, Issue 2, Spring 2016

Articles:
Zurkhaneh - http://www.irantourcenter.com/zurkhaneh-iran-traditional-sport/?fbclid=IwAR2CSO55EOPiqXVAHgn6y6H3tecFSV7HCGQ6VaSfYDclMdPe61oqm_p4VuQ
Zurkhaneh (article in Polish) - http://www.osmol.pl/2013/05/zurxane-tradycyjny-iranski-sport/
Pahlevani and Zoorkhaneh Rituals – https://www.tasteiran.net/stories/9/pahlevani-and-zoorkhaneh-rituals
Introducing Iranian Zoorkhaneh and Pahlevani traditions - http://www.soltourism.com/destinations/show/introducing-iranian-zoorkhaneh-and-pahlevani-traditions
ZUR-ḴĀNA, Encyclopaedia Iranica -
http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/zur-kana
Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals -
https://wikimili.com/en/Pahlevani_and_zoorkhaneh_rituals

Videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZOt13_ic5w
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cH2DIOtHEqU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZOt13_ic5w&feature=share&fbclid=IwAR0W3e56sNtPvqW4-ipOwPRBdPZmnRLg5z_yqmpl8Jwz-WiwNbdgctPMj9c

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfRules_Zurkhaneh.pdf

pdfPahlevani_and_Zoorkhanei_rituals_as_ancient_Iranian_sport.pdf

pdfZoorkhaneh_and_Varzesh-E-Bastani.pdf

pdfZoorkhaneh_Historic_Training_in_Iranian_Culture.pdf

pdfZurkhaneh_training.pdf

pdfMore_than_One_Way_to_Measure.pdf

Contact

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