Asia

Adimurai (India)

Name of sport (game): Adimurai
Name in native language: Tamil: அடிமுறை
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Tamil Nadu, India

Behempas (Indonesia)

Name of sport (game): Behempas (Indonesia)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

It is a traditional sport of the tribe Dayoo Tonyooi and Benuaq, one of the dayak tribes people living in Kutai Barat (Indonesia)

Description:

Behempas is attended by two people, each of which is equipped with a piece of rattan called isai, which is used to attack (hitting) the opponent, and a shield made of rattan called seloko, which is to protect itself from enemy attacks. The match takes place in three rounds.
Both sides will attack each other, striking or throwing rattan into the opponent's body. The impacts are not accidental, because there are rules: the part being attacked is the back of the opponent's body around the back. Of course, the one who has more damage loses.

Current status:

This traditional sport is played at every Dahau Sendawar festival held every two years. The Dahau Festival itself is a festival and exhibition of regional cultures in the West Kutai region.

Sources of information :

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khi-ANxR5j0

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Azura (India)

Name of sport (game): Azura
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

India

Almokabasah (Oman)

Name of sport (game): Almokabasah
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Compressing wrestling, or the so-called local menes, is a form of wrestling games prevalent in the south of the Sultanate of Oman, and is usually played in Dhofar Governorate and parts of eastern Yemen in Al Mahrah Governorate.

History:

The wrestling wrestling appeared between the 18th and 19th centuries in the south of the Sultanate of Oman. In the past, there were few and different means of entertainment and entertainment, in its simplicity and difficulty. Exercising between siblings and friends, each trying to drop the other and grabbing it from the waist belt, wants to fall to the ground and win.

Description:

The match begins with both players wearing belts on their belly, around their waist. And each of the players grabs the opponent from the belt and tries to put him on the ground. Piston wrestling is one of the most preferred games for men in the Dhofar Governorate. And the laws recognized in this wrestling in the fullest manner and in the presence of arbitrators and spectators, and when the match ends, the loser and the winner will shake hands with each other, and the loser accepts the loss with a generous chest and a sporting spirit. This is a type of wrestling that is not based on violence, and it aims at honest competition and providing reason and experience on strength, size and societal interconnection as an integral part of the Al-Dhofari Omani culture, and the word “press”, which in Arabic means “squeeze or compress” a person on the ground and in a mountain called Minus or Shinas. "Wrestling consists of several rounds, and wrestling takes place in two rounds in the event of victory. In the event of a tie, one round is added to the discount. There are techniques and techniques that the wrestler must know in order to be able to win. It includes types of tensile and pulling movements and other things that the opponent loses his balance. And there are other defensive or countermeasures and work to surprise the opponent very quickly to drop the goal of the game is that the competitor falls on the ground, and that he is installed on a back in the ground, the match consists of two rounds and in the event of a tie a third round is added.

Rules

The win is by dropping the wrestler ground in two out of three rounds, or winning one round and dealing in two out of three rounds.
Calculate winning a strong and direct fall of the wrestler on his back in the ground and the winning wrestler proves the loser in the ground for a few moments. The round is repeated again, the fixation on the ground does not require a long time, just the competitor falls on the back of the other wrestler, it is he who installs in the ground a few seconds on the ground, thus making it easier to distinguish the winner from the loser easily.
The loss is by dropping on the back two out of three rounds or a tie in two rounds and losing one round or by withdrawing from the match for any reason or excluding from the jury in the match for legal or moral reasons or lack of respect for the competitor and the lack of conditions for competitions on him or the escaping from The belt while wrestling or grabbing the wrestler's clothing or body is an explicit violation.

Tie or restart round

In the event of a negative tie in one round and the inability to drop the opponent within the specified time by three minutes for one round, the referee may give one minute as additional time and if there is a tie in two rounds out of three rounds, a negative tie without a 0-0 win or a positive tie a round we meet a round 1-1 The third round will be the decisive round, and if the third round has passed on what is in it with a draw, the victory has not yet been decided, a minute break will be given, then the third round will be returned to the decisive round, and each of the wrestlers will search for the golden opportunity in this round.
If the time allotted for the match ends without a victory, the winner is the one who got the most points possible in favor of the most aggressive wrestler first to attack and has beautiful skills, technology, and superb techniques in wrestling, a clean game that is free of errors and a waste of time.
And in the event that there is no fixation of the competitor, just the fall of the wrestlers with each other or next to each other, or they fall close to each other, or fall apart from one another, or one falls on the abdomen and the second on the back, or falls between them near or far, and there is no fixation of the competitor when the fall in the ground is calculated as a negative fall The round is repeated again and at a new time. As for the victory, it is (issued with the chest / winner’s chest against the loser’s chest and the back of the loser in the ground). This calculates a 100% deserved victory. There is no strong technicalities or techniques that cause this fall to win, the referee re-wrestles again with a new time of 3 minutes.
The fall that is counted as a win, as if the fall was a direct and strong intent in which the technical, the technical and the effort made it 100% win.

Evaluate and calculate points and give warning

The positive point is calculated and the negative point is calculated for the other wrestler :
- Drop the fist off the belt grab Constipation clothing or competitor's body
- Manipulation of the length or width of wearing the belt other than the agreed specifications or harming the competitor with an illegal handle
- Hitting the head or face with the head or face of the opponent while wrestling is standing
- Beating by the shoulder on the opponent's repulsion and face, or hitting the knee in the opponent's body
- Deliberately wasting time in a standing position for a long time and not attacking and trying to shoot down the opponent
- Introducing new and strange unknown movements that violate the standard pistering wrestling rules that may be dangerous for wrestlers.
- Do not speak to the opponent during wrestling in the match
- Ethical problems: lack of commitment and respect for the competitor or referees, and the competitions committee and the public

One of the basic principles in wrestling the traditional press is holding the belt until the end of the match, respecting the competitor, referee instructions, adhering to the sporting spirit in the championship, not manipulating the size and belt of the belt without permissible, as well as controlling the weight and the allowed grip and not introducing new and dangerous movements on the wrestler that contradicts the jury's system and competitions in the Nexus

Safety

It is forbidden to hold wrestling matches on solid ground for the safety of players, and that the belts are strong, strong and comfortable for wrestlers, not thin, light or narrow, weak and torn so that the wrestlers are not harmed.
Creating a circle with a diameter of no less than 8 x 8 meters specified for the safety of the wrestlers, because they did not fall in an inappropriate place, and the loss is not required in case of leaving the circle, merely committing to playing in the circle for the sake of safety and not being attached to the wall or the masses or falling in a solid place that might cause the wrestler harm.
This wrestling is practiced in places with high floor safety such as wrestling, karate and judo halls in specialized sports clubs or on the coast and non-rigid sandy places.

Type of clothing and binding belts

Clothing may be a traditional dress or a modern dress such as trousers, shirts and other sportswear with (belts)
Clothes and belts shall be consistent, agreed upon, by the Competitions Committee, the Jury, and the teams, to suit the game and the general taste.

Not binding
- Knee protectors
- Head protectors
- Flat shoes without heels or hoofs
- Dental protectors
- Wearing hand gloves

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Current status:

Practiced

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Piston wrestling or what is called internationally (belt wrestling) is a widespread type of wrestling in Europe, Asia and Africa, which provides interesting opportunities for the ancient traditional sports of nations and participation in international competitions inside and outside the Sultanate of Oman. In the Sultanate of Oman, we have traditional wrestling wrestling has a number of designations and several patterns In the world the most famous in Asia is called Korish wrestling or Alish wrestling, and in the federal republics of Russia it is called belt wrestling, and in the Korean peninsula is called wrestling serum "called in the Arabic language in the south of the Sultanate of Oman, wrestling wrestling is called the local dialect in Dhofar Governorate (Minus) or (Shinas) And it has several patterns and number of labels in the world, this wrestling deserves support and promotion across the world to introduce the Omani heritage in all parts of the world, and in the past centuries it was practiced pistaching wrestling or shinas in the mountains of Dhofar and its present and show for the purpose of entertainment and competition between friends and gain skills and defense technology, and in Seasons of collective harvest, hunting, frankincense and other community group work in which there is hardship There is a beautiful habit in Dhofar Governorate Assistance is a collective duty of everyone contributing to work and community collective assistance to the individual is usually mandatory and a social duty for everyone in the seasons of agricultural harvest or building and restoration of homes and seasons for fishing sardines and the production of frankincense The men are between a break and rather they work among them a competition and a challenge to entertain and highlight strength and muscle disease will establish a championship Nationwide wrestling wrestling and aggravating one of them the other falls with simple and easy fuel laws, it is today an important cultural element and international sport today it has more than 33 and is recognized in more than 50 countries, sport belt wrestling or pistering wrestling highlights Omani customs and traditions and we have many posts outside The Sultanate is under the umbrella of a private club in the name of the National Struggle Wrestling Association, and in international forums like ours, the Sultanate of Oman is best represented in a number of international championships, and now it is a sport that is growing in popularity all over the world, and there are many demands for its formal inclusion in the International Olympic Games, and today the wrestling wrestling In all its names in the world, it represents a means of rapprochement and friendship between peoples and nations.

Contacts:

Association Of Almokabasah Wrestling Sport (AMW)
C.R.No 1143951
Tel.: 0096892963377
Poste 40
Code No. 211
Salalah
Sultanate of Oman
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  
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Fb: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100028096440714&fref=gs&dti=2552918091657440&hc_location=group_dialog

Association Of Almokabasah Wrestling Sport logo do tekstu

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Ba Choukhe (Iran)

Name of sport (game): Ba Choukhe or Ba Cuxe
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Esfarāyen, Iran, regions of Khorasan
Once ‘Ba choukhe’ wrestling was common just in the North Khorasan, but over time the sport gradually spread to the south of the province. Today, the traditional wrestling is a pan-Khorasan sport, with a feverish support in the south.

History:

'Ba choukhe’ or ‘Cuxe’ wrestling is one of the most ancient and most popular local sports in Iran. ‘Cuxe’ means woolen garment. This form of wrestling first appeared in the northern regions of Khorasan [Khorasan is a vast province in the north-east of Iran]. In addition to maintaining a great degree of cultural richness, every year ‘Ba choukhe’ brings tens of thousands interested spectators together in the city of Esfarāyen.

Description:

Source: Guy Jaouen „Iran „Ba Chouke” (bā čuxe) Wrestling”

Calling the wrestlers
- If a wrestler does not come to the mat when he is called by the announcer, after 3 times calling, he loses the bout.

Duration of the contest:
- 5 minutes (sometimes 10mn in the villages + 5 mn extra time after 2 mn of rest).
- If the result is a draw, an additional time of 3 minutes will be added after 30 seconds of break. In the extra time, the wrestler who scores the first point wins.
- If after 8 minutes the result is still a draw, both wrestlers are weighed. The lighter wrestler will be the winner of the bout.
In a recent past, there were no time and weight limits. The wrestlers of bā čuxe traveled from one village to others, requesting challenge matches, sometimes going to Turkmen villages. The Turkmens of Northern Khorasan held their wrestling matches particularly during their wedding ceremonies. They call their traditional style of wrestling goraš (Kurash).

Important rule:
- The wrestlers are not permitted to touch opponent’s leg below to the knee (which signifies that one can grip on the higher part of the leg).

Winning
There are three possibilities to win: after a fall, after a higher scene (shadow), after a referee penalty.

Scoring points:
- A correct hold which throws the opponent in a “par terre” position (hands and knees on the ground) gives 1 point.
- When a throw, started inside the wrestling area of the mat, finish with a result outside the mat, this gives 2 points. If the fall is inside the mat, this gives one point.
- When a wrestler is thrown on his hip, and if he receipts himself on the palms of both hands + one elbow, it is 1 point.
- When the shoulders are closer to the ground than the waist after a throw.

Winning by “Stroke”:
- Winning fall: when the opponent is thrown on one (or two) shoulder to the ground.
- “Stroke”: After a throw, if both palms and both elbows touch the ground, the match is finished by “Stroke”. If it is only one palm and elbow, there is no result.
- Technical “Stroke” or sāye andāxtan in Persian, an expression which means “to catch the shadow” by turning around the shoulder’s axis in the air. Any throw that put the opponent in the following position: when the line of his back, vertically or in parallel with the ground, is bent to more than 90 degrees (between the line of the back and the legs), and in this position, when the body makes shadow on the ground.
(N.B. this last rule is not very clear for a non Iranian, but more generally a wrestler is in danger when lifted from the soil by his opponent).

Faults:
- Touching the lower parts of the legs (from knee) when attacking.
- Passivity and escaping (when a wrestler constantly attacks and his opponent only escapes then the latter will lose due to the technical superiority of his opponent)
- Holding opponent’s throat
- Taking both collars of the jacket with one hand from the frontal side (near the throat)
- Catching and keeping opponent’s wrist
- Twisting fingers in a wrong way
- Hitting intentionally or holding the neck with two hands.
Note: The first and second warnings are only given by the referee head of the mat”. For the 3rd, the three referees must agree and then the Jury confirms.

Weight categories (for senior and junior level):
-65kg; -75kg; -85kg; -95kg; +95kg

The wrestling area:
The official matches will be on mats of 10X10 (12X12 with protections). During summer they can also be done on grass field or on soft sand soil (traditional way).

Costume:
- Wrestler must wear a special Choukhe costume. This consists of a T-shirt, a special jacket and a short.
- The shirt must cover the back of the buttocks. The sleeves of the shirt must go until the elbow.
During the bout, the sleeves should be folded to the upper part of the arms.
- The sport trouser must be up to the knees and during the bout the short legs must be folded to the higher part of the legs.
- A strong shawl (or belt) of 5cm surround the body over the jacket, at the level of the belt, and is fixed at the back. The referee controls the dress and shawl during the match.
- Wrestlers must compete bare foot.
Originally, bā čuxe wrestlers used their everyday cloth for wrapping up their sleeves and binding their shawl around their waist to wrestle. From 1950, wrestlers started to wear pants reaching down to the knee and a sleeveless jacket. This jacket was made of very tough wool called _uxe (sheep wool or camel wool). They also used a shawl as a belt. From 1962, instead of wool they started to use linen, which is still the material for the bā čuxe jacket.

The referees:
Three referees control the bout. Two are in the corners and one in the centre. They wear a white T-shirt, white shoes and blue trousers. The corners referees are the “head of the mat” and the “judge of the mat”. The central referee is in charge of controlling the athletes before the bout. He gives his decision which must be confirmed by at least one of the corner referees.
A fourth referee can be added as a time keeper.

The jury:
It consists of 3 to 5 of former wrestlers, and is called “Rogavran”;
The jury control and supervise:
- The teams of referees.
- Any confusing result, for example by reviewing the video of the bout.
- The disqualification, after the 3rd warning.
- Choosing the best technical fair player
- Any kind of dispute or protest during the bout.

Music:
- All matches are accompanied by music performed with two instruments, the dohol (drum) and the sornā (hautbois),

Abandon:
- There is no right to abandon in favour of another competitor.

Prizes:
- For adults the winner gets a mare, the second place receives a dairy cow and the third place gets a ram.
The first three places of adolescents get a gold medal each.

Injuries:
- When injured or after a hard fall, a wrestler has a time of maximum 2 minutes to recover

Current status:

Sport practiced.

The first International "Ba Choukhe" Wrestling Festival took place in Iran, 31 March to 3rd April 2014, Northern Khorasan Province, at "Isfarayen". Every year thousands of people gather in this town to watch Ba Choukhe wrestling. The festival is hold a few days after Iranian New Year.

For example, in competitions, in April 2018, altogether 220 wrestlers competed, with 45 teams from ten provinces and 37 cities. They wrestled in five categories, namely 66, 74, 84, 96 and plus96 kg. In the end, the teams of Mojtame foolad Esfrayen (steel complex of Esfarayen), Sabak sazan shargh (Style makers of the East) and Asansor shargh Tehran (East Elevator of Tehran) won gold, silver and bronze respectively. The competitors were awarded cash prices, totalling 650 million Rials

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

In this region, the ‘Ba choukhe’ wrestling is a beloved sport, an athletic [Pahlevani] exercise and, above all, a cultural ceremony that is ingrained in local life. During festivals, holidays and wedding parties local inhabitants of North Khorasan perform this ancient sport, a tradition they cherish. They keep alive the spirit of manliness and heroism of days gone by through the wrestling.
Every year Iran’s national championship of “Ba choukhe” wrestling takes place of fourteen during Farvardin month, the first month of the Iranian calendar.

Sources of information :

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xERJAnvxR7E 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_4VFHKxGZA 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LBhVbs6avg0 

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfBA_CHOUKHE__par_Guy_Jaouen.pdf

pdfChoukhe_wrestling_2014.pdf

Berslate (Malaysia)

Name of sport (game): Berslate
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Malaysia

Angampora (Sri Lanka)

Name of sport (game): Angampora
Name in native language: Sinhala: අංගම්පොර
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Sri Lanka

Contacts:

Angam Pora
No: 06, Kanatta Road,
Mirihana, Nugegoda,
Sri Lanka
Telephone : +94 115 051770
Mobile : +94 71 445 2519
E mail : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Web: http://angampora.org/

Sources of information :

Articles:
http://exploresrilanka.lk/2010/07/angampora-the-martial-art-of-sri-lankan-kings/ 
https://www.cultural.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67%3Athe-art-of-angam-fighting&catid=35%3Aright&Itemid=72&lang=en 
http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=31826 
http://livingheritage.org/angampora.htm 

Gallery:

Bhimcencce (India, Turkmenistan)

Name of sport (game): Bhimcencce
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

India, Tirkmenistan

Arias da mene (Philippines)

Name of sport (game): Arias da mene
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Philippines

Bando (Myanmar)

Name of sport (game): Bando
Name in native language: Burmese: ဗန်တို
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Myanmar

Sources of information :

Books:
Maung Gyi, Burmese bando boxing, Ed. R.Maxwell, Baltimore, 1978

Articles:
http://fightland.vice.com/blog/the-styles-of-burmese-martial-arts 

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKOQFEUltFY&feature=emb_logo 

Arnis (Philippines)

Name of sport (game): Arnis
Name in native language: Arnis, also known as Kali, Tagalog, Escrima, Estogue or Fraile (depending on the region)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Philippines, 

Banshay (Myanmar)

Name of sport (game): Banshay
Name in native language: Burmese: ဗန်ရှည်

Asol Aap (India)

Name of sport (game): Asol Aap
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Is a popular sport of: Gujarat, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar islands

History:

Among the six tribes living in the Andaman and Nicobar islands (India), the Nicobarese are the only tribe who have their own customs and traditions, and their own indigenous games. Two of the major indigenous games of the region are Asol Aap and Asol - Tale Aap.
Canoeing is a familiar activity with the Nicobarese tribals as this was the only means of transport for their journeys from one island to another.

Description:

In Asol Aap, the canoe's length is approximately 100' and the number of participants in each team is fixed according to the size of the canoe. As the race takes place on the sea , and depth of water and current vary from shore side to deep sea, only two teams participate at a time.

Current status:

At Car Nicobar, this competition is organised by the Nicobar Athletic Association. The number of participants is generally 40 to 90, as per the size of the canoe. The race is about 5 to 6 km, and is conducted in the dry season.

Gallery:

Barilda (Mongolia)

Name of sport (game): Barilda
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Mongolia

Bōjutsu (Japan)

Name of sport (game): Bōjutsu
Name in native language: 棒術
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Japan

Description:

Today bōjutsu is usually associated either with Okinawan kobudō or with Japanese koryū budō. Japanese bōjutsu is one of the core elements of classical martial training.

Asol-Tale Aap (India)

Name of sport (game): Asol-Tale Aap (India)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Andaman & Nicobar islands (India)

Description:

This sport is basically a Canoe race held on sand instead of the sea. In this rather peculiar canoe race, the craft is built from the stem of a coconut tree, and can be of any size for its one or two participants. But in a race, the number of participants must be similar for each canoe. 15 to 20 participants take part at a time, the land of Nicobar being sandy and even. All the participants sit in their canoes keeping one leg in the canoe, and the other on the ground. They drive their canoe on the sand with the force of their limbs. The one who completes the distance in the shortest span of time is the winner. This activity involves great strength of body, especially in the hands.

Gallery:

Bayga (Kazakhstan)

Name of sport (game): Bayga
Description:

Bayga is a race characteristic for this region for horses of all breeds by age and distance. Historically, these were races that took place between settlements. Children rode the horses most often, due to the low weight, because the horses covered a distance of several dozen kilometers at a gallop. Currently, 2-3 km long tracks are designated for racing in the steppe, and viewers can follow the race from start to finish. On special racing days, yurt towns arise around the track, where social gatherings take place in line with centuries-old tradition. There are usually 3-4 races during the meeting. Kunan bayga is a 7-9 km race for 2-year-old horses, top bayga for 3-year-old and older horses at a distance of 11-17 km. The most important race is the alaman bayga for 3-year-old and older horses run over a distance of 25 km (previously up to 50 km). The higher the rank of the competition, the more expensive material prizes.

Bokator (Cambodia)

Name of sport (game): Bokator or Lbokkator The term bokator translates as "pounding a lion" from the words bok meaning "to pound" and tor meaning "lion."
Name in native language: ល្បុក្កតោ (Khmer)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Cambodia

- Village of Banteay Yuon and Sdao Chrum, Commune of Sya and Sre Sdok, District of Kandeang, Province of Pursat
- Village of Poral, Commune of Phnom Bat, District of Pornhealeu, Province of Kandal
- Urban area of Kampong Chhnang
- Village of Chres, Commune Rokakhnong, District of Daunkeo, Province of Takeo
- In the urban area and several districts of the province of Kampot
- In several districts of the Province of Svay Rieng
- Village of Tor Tea, Commune of Krabey Real, Province of Siem Reap
- Village of Thlok Chheuteal, Commune of Sopor Tep, District of Chhbarmon, Province of Kampong Speu
- Village of Khvet and Angdaung Reusey, Commune of Pong Ro, District of Roleabaea, Province of Kampong Chhang
- In several districts of the Province of Kampong Cham
- In Phnom Penh and in other provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Kandal, Preah Sihanouk, Koh Kong, Kratie, Oddor Meanchey Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Preyveng and Stung Treng.

History:

The ancient Khmer have practiced martial arts for 2000 years. Their country covered a significant part of Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
According to historians, the territory of the Khmer Empire once spanned mountain ranges, rivers, lakes and seas. Men lived there together with all kinds of animals such as tigers, lions and many other carnivores. To survive, the Khmer people strove to acquire the knowledge that would allow them to adapt to nature and defend themselves against all sorts of wild animals. Many archaeological digs across the country (Laang Spean, in the province of Battambang in 1964-1968, in 2009-2010-2012 in Memot, province of Kampong Cham, in 1962-1996 and then 2004 in the pagoda of Kumnou, province of Takeo, in 1999-2001 in Prohear, province of Prey Veng, in 2008-2010 in the village of Snay, in 2006-2009 in Sophy, in 2009-2010 in Kauktreas, and in the province of Banteay Meanchey in 2013) and the results of carbon dating on the objects found during these digs, point out that people began settling in these areas as early as the Neolithic: the inhabitants of this time were already capable of defending themselves and their communities; they possessed well-established beliefs including respect for the dead, to which they made offerings.

The first traces of the Bokator, fighting scenes, strangulation techniques and strokes are found on Angkor reliefs, especially in Banteay Srey, in the tenth century they practiced martial arts of Indian origin (Sri Lanka or Kerala) called Maloyuth.

To survive, the Khmers passed down knowledge and tactics from generation to generation to protect their community and customs, which became traditions. This knowledge, which enabled them, in particular, to fight wild animals, was illustrated in sculptures on the walls of many temples such as Sambor Prei Kuk, Koh Ker, Baphuon, Bayon, Preah Khan, Banteay Chhmar, etc. Furthermore, a very great number of bas-reliefs in the temples of Angkor relating the legends of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata describe these combat techniques practiced in the actual lives of the people of the Khmer Empire. Still later, the frescos of the Kampong Tralach pagoda, erected in the early 20th century in the province of Kampong Chhnang, which can still be admired today, illustrate scenes of combat during traditional festivities in which combatants can be seen using their bare hands and feet, as well as sticks. The Khmer ancestors gave the name “Kun Lbokkator” to all these combat techniques.
- The term KUN describes the martial art of fighting, leaping, and confronting opponents according to the techniques specific to the warriors of the Khmer Empire (Venerable Chuon Nat, p. 137);
- The term LBOKKATOR refers to all combat techniques involving the half-kneeling position, neither too high nor too low. Kun Lbokkator is based on 12 positions. The combination of the various positions forms a specific combat technique. The term Kun Lbokkator is also present in Khmer literary works. According to the Khmer dictionary of the Venerable Chuon Nat, page 1,138, the term LBOKKATOR means a sort of short stick spanning the distance from elbow to hand used as a shield against the long staff of an opponent, or a combat technique using this short stick.

Bas relief avec des techniques de soumission

Bokator or L'bokator is a Khmer martial art that includes weapon techniques. One of the oldest existing combat systems in Cambodia, oral tradition indicates that the Bokator or its early version was a melee combat system used by the Angkor army 1700 years ago.
It is said that the boxer is the earliest systematized Khmer martial art. The name l’Bokkatao comes from Sanskrit, so it is thought to be native in India, like the Khmer culture. The pronunciation of the word "bok-ah-tau" comes from labokatao, which means "to hit the lion." This refers to a story that took place 2000 years ago. According to legend, the lion attacked the village, when the warrior, armed only with a knife, defeated the animal with his bare hands, killing animal with one strike at the knee.

relief

Although the lion has cultural significance to Indochina, modern literature assumes that this was not the area of occurrence of the Asian lion, which currently lives in western India. Instead, large cats from Southeast Asia are an Indochina leopard and a tiger.

Wall engravings of people practising bokator at the Bayon temple part of the Angkor temples complex

Indian culture and philosophy were the main features which had an influence on the culture of Angkor. All large Angkor buildings are dedicated to Hindu gods, especially Visnu and Shiva. Even today, practicing Bokator start each training session with respect for Brahma. Religious life was dominated by brahmanas, who also practiced sword fighting and empty hand techniques in India. The concept of animal-based techniques most likely appeared during the reign of the Angkor kings and during the simultaneous influence of Indian martial arts.
The reliefs at the base of the entrance pillars to Bayon, the state temple of Jayavarman VII, depict various Bokator techniques.

relief bokator

The Khmer Empire was huge, which meant that many martial arts were practiced on its territory. Hence the difference between Kun Khmer and Muay Thai is small. Style and strategy are slightly similar, although the rules are different. The use of elbows is preferred in Kun Khmer. Kun Khmer's warriors will be more looking for opportunities to strike an enemy to shorten the fight distance than wins for points.
Historically, Thai people have come to the present territory since the eleventh century, while the Khmers have been there since at least the first century AD with the kingdom of Funan. The Thai people were vassals of the Khmer Empire and worked as mercenaries until independence and victory over the Khmer in the fourteenth century. That is why they adopted the fighting techniques practiced at that time by Khmer and Mon (people practicing Burmese boxing) and appropriated Khmer culture along with the alphabet, dance, martial arts etc. Therefore, Cambodian boxing has many similarities to Thai boxing, because they both come from the same martial art.

Bokator was the main basis of the martial arts used by Khmer ancestors when fighting their enemies. More recent research is showing that after the arrival of ammunition-firing canons, Bokator became a performing art or traditional leisure game, practiced during traditional festivities such as the Day of the Dead, the Buddhist Solidarity Festival (Kathin), the Khmer New Year, etc. A large number of Bokator fighting techniques have become essential building blocks for other forms of art and the performing arts: classic and folklore dances such as Toam Ming, Kantèrè, Bokleakh, Chhay Yam, Robaim Kbach Kun, and some combat scenes of Bassac theatre.
Although Cambodia was, during the centuries following the fall of Angkor, burdened by wars, Bokator remains and continues to survive within Khmer society. Master practicing in communities, certain pagoda venerables, instructors, supporters, national television networks, film producers, several Ministries of the Royal Cambodian Government and their provincial Departments, national and international sports clubs (in the United States, France and Canada in particular) are unanimous in their will to support and promote Bokator.
From the 17th century until 1953, Cambodia experienced many political turmoils. The element bearers and local authorities encouraged the defence movements in communities and formed militia groups. Bokator training and learning were organised for the villagers. The French Protectorate authority (1863-1953) even presented the best Bokator (stick or bare-handed combat) practitioners to the public during the French and Cambodian national festivities.
After 1953, the authorities continued to encourage Bokator learning and training, extending some of the combat techniques to other forms of sport such as modern Khmer boxing and traditional Khmer boxing and establishing national and international combat standards.
All the efforts and measures relating to bokator were entirely annihilated, the human resources decimated and documentation entirely destroyed by the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime. Some knowledge bearers that survived were able to reconstitute a partial knowledge of the element.
After the fall of the Khmer Rouge, the few masters who escaped pooled their knowledge to transmit it to new generations. However, the lack of opportunities and means significantly restricted transmission of their knowledge at a period when the war-ravaged country strived to rebuild itself.
The Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts of Cambodia conducted research to gather documentation on Bokator, inventorying 76 high-level practitioners and offering them the opportunity to transmit their knowledge. In collaboration with several television networks, Bokator performances and historical documentaries were broadcast.
The relevant public institutions also conducted research to document Bokator and form Bokator clubs. Competitions were organised at a national and international level. In 2010, Cambodia participated in the "Chungju World Martial Arts Festival" in South Korea.
Private partners, especially film and television programme producers started to show interest in Bokator to stage performances for audiences and make it part of their scenarios.
The Living Treasure system adopted in Cambodia did not include any Bokator masters amongst its 17 first nominations, completed by Royal Decree.
Since 2012, the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts has been conducting an inventory of all masters, clubs, communities and potential pupils with a view to organising sustainable programmes to safeguard and transmit knowledge to future generations.
It may ,therefore, be observed that despite the efforts implemented, there is a true need for a precise, coordinated programme to safeguard this traditional martial art.

old khmer fight

Description:

Bokator is the general name for all Khmer martial arts: Kbach Kun Boran

Khmer - ក្បាច់គុនបូរាណ, which include:

1) Atmani Yuth – forms of fight with bare hands

technika 1
In which you can distinguish:
- Kun Khmer (គុនខ្មែរ) – boxing
- Baok Chambab (បោកចំបាប់) - wrestling
The Atmani yuth boxing comes from Kun Daï. Kun Khmer, which means that Khmer art is a modern name meaning Khmer boxing, which will replace pradal serey.

2) Ani Yuth –forms of fight with weapons

technika2
In which you can distinguish:
- Kbach Kun Dambong veign (ក្បាច់គុណដំបងវែង) – long stick fight

technika3
- L’Bokkatao (ល្បុក្កតោ) – fight with use of Kun Khel

un jeune pratiquant avec des Khel

- fight with the sword, short stick etc.

Currently in Cambodia there are many Bokator schools of martial arts and Kun Khmer, and their largest concentration is in Phnom Penh and several in Siem Reap.

bokator jeune garcon

A common misunderstanding is that the Bokator refers to all Khmer martial arts, while in reality, he represents only one particular style. The competitor uses diverse punches of elbow and knee blows, shin kicks, dodges and ground floor fighting.
During the fight, Bokator champion still wears the clothes of ancient Khmer armies. The krama (scarf) is wrapped around the waist, moreover, a blue and red silk cord called "sangvar" is tied around the head and biceps. In the past, it was thought that cords had power and were put on to increase strength, although now they are only ceremonial.

It should also be noted that the term Bokator is the master San Kim Sean’s choice (also the Cambodian sport ministery’s and the Cambodia Olympic Comitee‘s choice) to designate all traditional Khmer martial arts Kbach Kun boran Khmer (weapon techniques, supplies, etc.) except boxing (Kun Khmer) in commercial will and simplification. Because there are many martial arts in Cambodia, to simplify all this and facilitate expansion, the term Bokator (even Kun Bokator) was chosen.

The art contains 341 parts, which, like many other Asian martial arts, are based on observation of life in nature. For example, there are styles of horses, birds, eagles and cranes, each includes several techniques. Due to the visual similarity, the Bokator is often mistakenly described as a variant of modern kickboxing. Many forms are based on traditional animal styles, as well as simple practical fighting techniques. “Pradal serey” is a more condensed combat system that uses some basic techniques (white krama) to hit by using the elbow or knee and is without any animal styles.

Krama shows the advancement level of the warrior. The first level is white, followed by green, blue, red, brown and finally black. After completing the initial training, competitors wear black krama for at least another ten years. After the black krama there are also "dan", which in Khmer is called Tchouan, and a special krama, including a gold and a diamond. To reach the golden krama, you must be a real champion and do something great for the Bokator. This is certainly a time consuming and perhaps life-long undertaking: in the very part of martial arts without weapons, there are from 8,000 to 10,000 different techniques, of which only 1,000 need to be learned to reach the black krama. The practice includes the use of weapons, forms (tvear), animal techniques, standing combat, ground fighting and wrestling. Each of the first six contains tvear and the need to overmaster:
• Attack techniques, eg: feet, elbows, knees.
• Defense techniques.
• Animal movement techniques (Sath) and combat techniques (Maekun Veybok).
• A kun kru (ritual dance before the fight).

Each level has its own difficulties, the higher the level, the more content. The duck and horse technique are white krama techniques necessary to obtain a green krama. The same applies to the techniques of Preah Noryeille (Vishnu), these are blue krama techniques to obtain a red krama.

All hard parts of the body are used in the Bokator: fists, feet, arms, head, knees, and elbows.

In Cambodia, there are regular competitions such as SEA GAMES in Phnom Penh.
The competitors compete in two categories:

- techniques

bokator technika

There are technical competitions in which the practitioner presents his tvear (kata,form), with bare hands or with a weapon (short stick, long stick or khel). The judges pay attention to the aesthetics of the movements and the quality of the exercises.

- fight

bokator5

The fight takes place in a circle, in 5-minute rounds, and the players are accompanied by music (different from muay thai and kun khmer). All strokes are allowed except for strikes on the ground, neck, back and genitals. The referee quickly stops the fight when the players are on the ground if one is not moving. Of course, bites and sticking fingers in the eyes are also prohibited.
Fighters dance between each phase of the fight. There is an old legend which says that warriors who fought against animals performed a dance to enchant them and better neutralize.

Current status:

During the Pol Pot regime (1975–1979), those who practiced traditional Bokator art were either systematically exterminated by the Khmer Rouge, escaping as refugees, or stopped teaching and start hiding. After the Khmer Rouge regime, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia began and local martial arts were completely banned. San Kim Sean is often called the father of the modern Bokator and thanks to him this martial art has been largely preserved and spread. In Pol Pot's time, San Kim Sean had to flee Cambodia on charges of teaching hapkido and Bokator. In America, he began teaching hapkido at the local YMCA in Houston, Texas, and later moved to Long Beach, California. After living for some time in the United States and teaching and promoting hapkido, he discovered that no one had ever heard of a Bokator. He left the United States in 1992 and returned home to Cambodia to restore the Bokator tradition. In 2001, San Kim Sean moved back to Phnom Penh and after receiving permission from the new king, began teaching the local youth. In the same year, hoping to gather all the remaining living masters, he began to travel around the country looking for a Bokator lok kru or instructors who survived the regime. The few people he found were old, sixty to ninety years old, and tired of 30 years of oppression; many were afraid to teach art openly. After many persuasions and after the approval of the government, the old masters gave way and Sean successfully restored the memory of a Bokator to the people of Cambodia.

San Kim Sean

Contrary to popular belief, San Kim Sean is not the only labokatao master who survive. Others are Meas Sok, Meas Sarann, Ros Serey, Sorm Van Kin, Mao Khann and Savoeun Chet. The first national Bokator competition in history took place in Phnom Penh at the Olympic Stadium on September 26-29, 2006. 20 leading teams from nine regions took part in the competition.

In Europe, the Bokator is becoming more and more popular. Important people who popularizing this sport are:

François Moreau, like most practitioners in France he started with judo and then with Ju-Jitsu. He practiced boxing at the age of 17, kick-boxing and Full-contact. He later discovered Kung fu, perfecting himself in Sifu Gao Shikui in the style of a praying mantis: boxing Tang Lang. He obtained a black belt and an instructor diploma. At the same time, he practices Muay-Thai, Kun Khmer (Cambodian boxing) and Pancrace. He fights in each of these disciplines. He has the title of vice-champion of France 2004 and champion of France 2005.

Franois Moreau

Christophe Chiv, nicknamed Nak, began practicing martial arts from taekwondo at a small traditional club in Saint-Denis (France) at the age of six. He also practiced Shotokan karate, and at the age of 15 he decided to start boxing and kick-boxing. He appeared on the ring for the first time at the age of 16. He practices Kun Khmer (Cambodian boxing) and Bokator (Cambodian martial art).

rywalizacja bokator

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Bokator is one of the key elements represented in Cambodia’s world heritage sites: the Angkor temples and the Temple of Preah Vihear. On an equal footing with the Royal Ballet and Sbek Thom (shadow theatre), Bokator is exclusively part of Cambodia’s intangible cultural heritage and is closely related to world heritage. While it may be said that the temples, which may be equated with the body, have been preserved, it is just as important to save the soul and spirit of this heritage. Bokator, carved into the bas-reliefs of the world heritage temples, deserves an emergency safeguarding programme in order to highlight the intangible aspects of world heritage.
Bokator is one of the most physical illustrations of the customs, traditions and knowledge of the everyday life of the ancient Khmers regarding defence against wild animals and invaders.
Bokator was part of the country’s national identity at the time of the Khmer Empire and also constitutes a key historical element in the fight to defend the Empire. This element can therefore not be ignored in studies and teachings about the history of Cambodia. Implementing an appropriate safeguarding programme is, therefore, an urgent matter before this element disappears or looses its initial form.
Nearly all bearers - Bokator masters - are generally more than 75 years old. Their health is very fragile and their memory not always very clear. Many of them are beginning to forget the important aspects of Bokator. Others are already dead and are soon to be followed. Some are mobility-challenged and are no longer capable of performing a full demonstration to their pupils.
As few young people show interest, there is a real shortage of human resources to renew Bokator.

Contacts:

Cambodia Kun Bokator Federation
Phnom Penh
+855 Phnom Pen, Cambodia
https://www.facebook.com/KunBokatorFederation/ 

Cambodia Kun Bokator Federation

Surviving Bokator
+1 416-616-4251
www.survivingbokator.com 
https://www.facebook.com/bokatorfilm/ 

Bokator Cambodia
https://www.facebook.com/Bokator-Cambodia-171150479572441/?eid=ARD4U4zL4CZwIi0xryAOdWq1zdoQux0qri9CqCkjID7XBPUMhhhoZyMmYUyRg_2aJ7AiAXx0_57TI8OR 

Federation Khmer Sak Yant
http://federationkhmersakyant.com/ 
(+855) 97 83 80 844 (Teven)
(+855) 86 200 253 (Sotun)

Fédération Européenne de Bokator
https://www.facebook.com/federationeuropeennebokator/ 

Fdration Europenne de Bokator

Australian Bokator Association
+61 401 004 045
Seng 0401 004 045
Heng 0411 731 218
John 0400 121 036
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Australian Bokator Association jpg

Iranian Bokator Association
https://www.facebook.com/IranianBokatorAssociation/ 

Iranian Bokator Association

Bokator Academy
https://www.facebook.com/Bokator-Academy-Phnum-Phen-210787102360197/ 
+855 97 702 4523

Bokator Akademy jpg

Leak Rayong Bokator
https://www.facebook.com/KhmerMartialArt 

Leak Rayong Bokator

Midle East
https://twitter.com/mekf_mebf 

Middle East Kun Khmer Federation

Bokator Fight
+855 10 904 074
https://www.facebook.com/Bokator-Fight-174109282649881/ 

UP Bokator Club
https://www.facebook.com/BokatorPuthisastra/ 
#55, Street 180-184, Sangkat Boeung Raing, Khan Daun Penh
12000 Phnom Penh
+855 87 752 998

UP Bocator Club

Bokator Morodok Khmer
https://www.facebook.com/bokatormorodok.khmer/ 
126 street 598,Toul Kork, Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
+855 17 728 347

Bokator Morodok Khmer

La Bokator A.K.A Khmer Martial Arts
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Phone: (562) 230-5731
Address: 1321 E Anaheim St, Long Beach, CA 90813

La Bokator AKA Khmer Martial Arts

Sources of information :

Books, articles:
Ang, C., La lutte et d'autres jeux de physique. Recueil des articles de presse sur la Culture khmère, No1., 2005-2006
An, C. H., Lbokkator et les arts du spectacle. Phnom Penh, 2012
Chuon, N., Dictionnaire khmer-khmer. Phnom Penh, 1967
Chey, V., Khmer traditional boxing. Southeast – Asian culture year 2004
Chuch, P., Fouilles archéologiques à Snay. Centre de recherche international du Japon, Yooshinori Yasuda, 2008
Daim, T., Les épisodes de la galerie intérieure du temple de Bayon. Mémoire de Licence. Faculté de l'archéologie. Phnom Penh, 2005
Heng, S., Forestier, H., Le site archeologique de Laâng Spean. Rapport sur la première fouille archéologique, 2009
Im, S., La vie du peuple khmer après l'époque angkorienne à travers les sculptures sur les bas-reliefs du temple de Bayon. Mémoire de Licence. Factulté de l'archéologie. Phnom Penh, 1995
Iv, P., Les épisodes de la galerie extérieure du temple de Bayon. Mémoire de Licence. Faculté de l'archéologie. Phnom Penh, 2004
Khiev, Ch., Seng, S., Le temple de Banteay Chhmar. Mémoire de Licence. Factulté de l'archéologie. Phnom Penh, 1997
Khing, H., La fable d'Angkor. Littérature et civilisation khmères. Librairie d'Angkor, 2006
Leclere, A., L'histoire du Cambodge. Paris, 1914
Meas, S., L'héritage des arts martiaux khmers. Phnom Penh. Vol. 1., 2011
Oreilly, D., A Compendium of Archaeological Research Undertaken in Cambodia. University of Sydney Australia, 2009
Nou, S., Rapport de la recherche sur les arts martiaux khmers. Département du Développement culturel. Ministère de la Culture et des Beaux-arts, 2007
Roath, S., La Boxe khmère, 2012
Sam, A., Preah Chan Korup. Institut bouddhique. Phnom Penh, 1833
San, K., Khmer Martial Arts-Boxkator History 2000 years. Angkorian Traditional Martial Art. Bokator Competition Rule. Phnom Penh, 2004-2008
Sok, Th., L'histoire des arts martiaux khmers. Département de la Culture et des Beaux-arts de la province de Kampong Chhnang, 2012
Taing, Rinith, The Kingdom’s oldest wrestling form grapples with fading interest, The Phnom Penh Post, 7 Apr. 2017, retrieved 21 Apr. 2017
Vanna, Ly, Khmer Traditional Wrestling, Leisure Cambodia, August 2002, retrieved April 21, 2017
Vogel, S., 2009. Aspect de la culture traditionnelle des Bunong du Mondulkiri. Phnom Penh.
WOMAU News, The World Martial Arts Union 2009 become a NGO in operational relation with UNESCO.
World Martial Arts Union (WOMAU) W.M.A.F Promotion Committees 2010.

Articles (web):
http://federationkhmersakyant.com/bokator--khmer-martial-arts.html 
http://blog.aseankorea.org/?p=4072 
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2007/10/14/2003383133  
http://www.talesofasia.com/rs-99-bokator.htm 
https://theculturetrip.com/asia/cambodia/articles/bokator-the-history-of-traditional-khmer-martial-arts/ 
https://www.khmertimeskh.com/506074/the-lady-is-a-bokator-fighter/ 
http://www.fullcontactmartialarts.org/bokator-khmer.html 
https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/article/2142056/ancient-martial-art-spawned-muay-thai-undergoes-rebirth-cambodia-thanks 
http://www.leisurecambodia.com/news/detail.php?id=113  
https://www.phnompenhpost.com/arts-culture/kingdoms-oldest-wrestling-form-grapples-fading-interest 
http://www.rfi.fr/hebdo/20180406-surviving-bokator-cambodge-documentaire-art-martial-khmer-rouge 

Video:
https://vimeo.com/284746421?fbclid=IwAR25qBLZePl1vasUqv3QmOcfXEyg_jUYbVTGs54R2znvBU1X84TR3aZQme8 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RalqHrCChWI 
Martial Arts Odyssey: Bokator: The Khmer Martial Art Parts 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gobc3zSjXZU
Martial Arts Odyssey: Bokator: The Khmer Martial Art Parts 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBwvwThib5s

Gallery:

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