- Name of sport (game): Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestling
- Name in native language: Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestling
- Place of practice (continent, state, nation):
Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestlingis played on grass, outdoor, during the summer fairs or sport festivals. Every body can inter the competition.
It is a standing up wrestling style with clothes. The wrestlers (men or women) wear a T-Shirt and long johnsLegs can grip legs and the arm position is fixed.
There are several weight and age categories.
Techniques are mainly with hips and legs and the goal is to throw the opponent on any part of the body.
- Name of sport (game): Curling
- Name in native language: Curling
- Place of practice (continent, state, nation):
Invented in Scotland in the 16th century it is popular in the UK (mainly Scotland) as well as countries to which Scots have exported it, including Canada, the US, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. In addition curling is now played in a number of other countries, including many other areas of Europe, China, Japan and Korea.
One of the world’s oldest team sports, curling originated in the 16th century in Scotland, where games were played during winter on frozen ponds and lochs. The earliest-known curling stones came from the Scottish regions of Stirling and Perth and date from 1511. In the 1600s, stones with handles were introduced.
Curling; a Scottish Game at Central Park (1862) by John George Brown
The Curlers (1835) by Sir George Harvey
The first curling clubs appeared in Scotland, with the Grand Caledonian Curling Club, formed in 1838, being responsible for formulating the first official rules of the sport. The Club was renamed the Royal Caledonian Curling Club in 1843. The key 20th-century developments in the sport have been the standardisation of the stone, the development of the slide delivery, and the use of indoor, refrigerated ice facilities.
Men’s curling was included in the Olympic programme in 1924 at the first Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix. It was then dropped, and later re-introduced as a demonstration sport in 1932 in Lake Placid.
Between 1936 and 1992, curling was staged at the Games as a demonstration sport: in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in 1936 and Innsbruck in 1964, under the German name of “Eisschiessen”; and in 1988 in Calgary and in 1992 in Albertville, with both men’s and women’s events.
It was in Nagano in 1998 that it officially joined the Olympic programme, with both men’s and women’s competitions.
Curling has similarities to bowls and shuffleboard (deck) and involves sliding granite stones, also called rocks, into a target area at the other end of a long, thin, strip of ice which constitutes the “pitch”. The team that propels their rocks closest to the centre of the target scores points accordingly, with the path of the stone influenced by team members who sweep and brush the ice ahead of the stone in order to alter its speed or curl.
Curling is played between two teams of four using eight granite stones each. The “pitch” is a flat, smooth area of ice measuring 45-46m long and 4.4-5m wide. There is a “house” at each end, a circular target made up of a blue outer circle with a 12ft diameter, a white circle inside that with a diameter of eight feet and a red circle with a diameter of four feet.
The stones themselves weight between 17 and 20kg, are at least 11cm high with a maximum circumference of 91cm and have a handle attached to the top. They are made of granite and the handles are usually red for one side and yellow for the other.
The two sweepers who follow the rock down the ice use brushes or brooms, usually made of fiberglass and fabric or horsehair but there are no real restrictions on the materials from which it is constructed. In addition the players wear curling shoes which are broadly similar to standard trainers except that one sole is smooth to enable sliding.
Players also usually use gloves, specific curling trousers and a stopwatch to better understand the pace of the ice and the need for sweeping.
Scoring is done after each “end” (an end being a set where both teams have thrown all eight stones) with whichever team is closest to the centre of the house being awarded a point. Further points are awarded for each stone of theirs that is closer than the best of the opposition’s. In order to score any points at least one stone must be “in the house”, which is to say touching any of the circles or overhanging them (due to the shape of the stones).
The game is won by the team that scores the most points after all the ends are complete. Most curling matches take place over ten or sometimes eight ends. If the scores are level after the allotted number of ends then an extra sudden-death end is played.
A curling sheet, with dimensions in feet (1' = 1 ft = 0.3 m). CL: Centreline • HOL: Hogline • TL: Teeline • BL: Backline • HA: Hackline with Hacks • FGZ: Free Guard Zone
Rules of Curling
Teams of four take it in turns to curl two rocks towards the target area with the scores being counted after all 16 rocks have been sent down the ice.
International matches have a time limit of 73 minutes per side with two timeouts lasting a minute each. 10 minutes and one timeout are permitted per extra end in the event of a tie.
The stone must be released its front edge crosses a line called the hog. Foul throws are removed from the ice before they have come to rest or in contact with other rocks.
Sweeping may be done by two members of the team up to the tee line, whilst after that point only one player can brush. After the tee one player from the opposing side may also sweep
A stone touched or moved when in play by a player or their broom will either be replaced or removed depending on the situation.
The team to go first is decided by coin toss, “draw-to-the-button” contest or, in Olympic competition using win-loss records. Subsequently the team that failed to score in the previous end has the advantage of going last, called the hammer throw.
A team may concede if they feel they cannot win, although depending on the event and stage of event they may have to wait until a certain number of ends have been completed.
Fair play is of huge importance so there is a culture of self-refereeing with regards fouls and this is a big part of curling.
- The curling stone (also sometimes called a rock in North America) is made of granite and is specified by the World Curling Federation, which requires a weight between 38 and 44 pounds (17.24 and 19.96 kg), a maximum circumference of 36 inches (914.4 mm) and a minimum height of 4.5 inches (114.3 mm). The only part of the stone in contact with the ice is the running surface, a narrow, flat annulus or ring, 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch (6.4 to 12.7 mm) wide and about 5 inches (130 mm) in diameter; the sides of the stone bulge convex down to the ring and the inside of the ring is hollowed concave to clear the ice. This concave bottom was first proposed by J. S. Russell of Toronto, Ontario, Canada sometime after 1870, and was subsequently adopted by Scottish stone manufacturer Andrew Kay.
- The curling broom, or brush, is used to sweep the ice surface in the path of the stone (see sweeping) and is also often used as a balancing aid during delivery of the stone.
- Curling shoes are similar to ordinary athletic shoes except for special soles; the slider shoe (usually known as a "slider") is designed for the sliding foot and the "gripper shoe" (usually known as a gripper) for the foot that kicks off from the hack.
- Curling pants, made to be stretchy to accommodate the curling delivery.
- A stopwatch to time the stones over a fixed distance to calculate their speed. Stopwatches can be attached either to clothing or the broom.
- Curling gloves and mittens, to keep the hands warm and improve grip on the broom.
- Current status:
The ICF was initially formed in 1966 as a committee of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club in Perth after the success of the Scotch Cup series of world championships held between Canada and Scotland. At the outset, it comprised the associations of Scotland, Canada, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States. In the wake of its formation, it sanctioned the World Curling Championships. The WCF currently sanctions fifteen international curling events (see below). The WCF is managed by eight Board Directors, one president, three vice-presidents (one from each WCF regional zone - Americas, Europe, Pacific-Asia) and six Board Directors. The six Board Directors must all come from different member associations. All positions on the Board of Directors are elected by WCF member associations. The Board of Directors are supported by and a permanent staff of 20 employees. There are currently 61 member associations (https://worldcurling.org/member-associations/).
World Curling Federation
Tel: +44 (0)1738 451 630
Springkerse Business Park
Stirling FK7 7XE
Tel.: +44 (0) 131 333 3003
The lists of curling clubs worldwide: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_curling_clubs
List of curlers: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_curlers
- Sources of information :
- Name of sport (game): Fierljeppen/Polsstokverspringen
- Name in native language: Polsstokverspringen From Frisian language: Fierljeppen - the Frisian name fierljeppen came from the English "far leaping" (fier-far, ljeppen-leaping), which means "far jumping".
- Place of practice (continent, state, nation):
The Netherlands (especially Frisia, Utrecht region).
Because the Netherlands is largely below sea level or right on sea level, there are many waterways and canals. In the swamps of the Netherlands, the pole has been used to jump over watercourses for a long time. People often tried to jump over these canals using the pole.
The favourite entertainment, in the old days of, people living in the northern regions of Groningen and Friesland was collecting eggs of peewits. They were considered a delicacy. Often, to get them they had to overcome wide channels.
Brueghel's paintings already show the Dutch jumps through the canals. The first written certificates come from 1200.
Obviously, people were not satisfied only with jumping, so they started using longer and longer poles. Over time, it becomes an opportunity to compete in jumping above the canal with its use. That was the beginning of fierljeppen.
In the village of Baard (Frisia), on 24 August 1767, the first known official tournament took place, organized by the widow of Ype Gerbens, the local ruler. The competition was the result of bet, as reported by Leeuwarder Courant (the oldest daily newspaper in the Netherlands). Some sources claim that the year 1771 has been the official beginning of the competition.
In the 1930s, the sport competition was very similar to what it is nowadays. Official rules were established regarding the course of the competition, measurements and conditions of competition. Since 1956, regular competitions have been held in Friesland (all archive data with results are available on Polstokbond Holland (PHB) and Frysk Ljeppers Boun (FLB) websites.
The chairman of BFVW (Bond van Friese Vogelwachten) Sjoerd Span and Lykele Miedema the director of the Miedema factory, founded Fryske Ljeppers Kommisje (FLK) together with representatives of Vogelwacht, Winsum department. FLK consisted of members: Feije Broersma, Geert Dijkstra, Klaas Jepma and Sybren Bakker as well as Sjoerd Span and Lykele Miedema. Sjoerd Span became chairman. On August 10, 1957, De Fryske Ljeppers Kommisje (FLK) have organized the first official fierljep competition in Winsum under the guidance of BFVW. On 13 January 1960, the Association "Frysk Ljeppers Boun" was founded from the merger of FLK and Bond Voor Friese Polsstokverspringers - BVFP. On 28 June 1978, the statute was established in Winsum, and the last modification took place on 26 April 1988.
In 1957, the Friesland league was created, afterwords leagues in Utrecht and South Netherlands, and in the 1970s the first championship of the Netherlands took place.
In the German region of East Frisia, this sport is known as Pultstockspringen. Today it is primarily cultivated for entertainment or as an attraction for tourists, but there is still an official annual National Fierljepping Manifestation (NFM) in the Netherlands. The competition takes place between the clubs that deal with this sport.
Up to 1975, people jumped on wooden poles, with a maximum length of 10 meters, which were then replaced with aluminium poles with a maximum length of 12.5 meters, including the extension. In 2006, they were replaced with plastic poles with a maximum length of 13.25 m, which are stiffer and less bend. The plastic allows to jump further. The Dutch record was 19.40 m for 15 years, belonged to Aart de With from Benschop which has been beaten many times during the season, four jumpers in 2006 managed to break the record from 1991. The disadvantage of plastic is its poor resistance to point loads, which should be handled with poles carefully.
Foreign tourists who visited Friesland and watched this sport contributed to its popularity around the world. Currently, competitions are organised in other places, although at a lower level due to the smaller number of competitors and the lack of appropriate locations.
This sport is a kind of combination of long jump and pole vault. The goal is to jump over a water tank with a pole and land on the other bank. The competitor runs towards the canal with water, inserting the pole into the water, climbs up as high as possible, then to land as far as possible on the opposite sandy shore.
The pole is 8 to 13 meters (from 26 to 43 ft). At the end, there is a tile that prevents it from sinking into the mud at the bottom of the water tank.
The whole jump consists of several parts that can be trained separately: a short, fast run from a distance of about 20 m from the pole (polsstok), a jump in its direction and climbs up the top of the pole so that in the last phase, land on the sand, unless the competitor previously climbed insufficiently high, then he lands in the channel. Fierljeppen jumpers must be characterized by great strength and developed motor coordination, they must be able to concentrate and have a lot of perseverance.
Fierljeppen requires a lot of technical knowledge. To do and land a successful jump, you must be master in many different aspects. The pole must be placed at a suitable distance from the platform (in the case of deep water, it is placed closer because water resistance must be taken into account). Then make a short and quick sprint from 15 to 20 meters, grab the pole with both hands. Then you have to climb up the top of the pole as soon as possible because the higher you go, the more distance the player overcomes. However, be sure not to disturb the balance or trajectory. When the pole starts to move down on the opposite side, push back and turn the legs forward to maximize the momentum. Of course, a good landing is important to avoid injury.
The run-up is essential for a good jump. Its speed determines, among other things, how far you can put the pole in the water. Training of run-up is an important part of a practice as ,in addition to general basic training, run-up training is also necessary:
• the length of the run-up should be determined,
• Make sure that the consistency of preparations in all elements of the jump is maintained, which should be checked regularly.
The run-up length is different for each player. This is related to strength of leg, size and number of steps. The ultimate goal is to reach exactly at the end of the ramp without looking at the platform. Usually, the run starts with the strongest leg, making an odd number of steps: 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, etc. Warm-up starts with 3 initial runs. A measuring tape is placed next to the running way, which indicates fixed measuring points. Each of the runs is measured with a tape. The coach checks if the jumper ends the run in the right place. The jumper is looking only at the starting point, starting the run, then looking ahead at the endpoint. Training should be varied and cannot focus only on the run-up, because the exercise for a long time, causes fatigue, which affects the length of steps. In addition, in the start-up season, length of the entire run-up may change. This is due to increasing the strength and pace of the run-up. If the average step distance changes by + 1 cm, the total run-up distance increases, eg by 15 cm.
Jump is very complex. It becomes the transition from the run-up to climbing. Jump and grabbing the pole take place almost at the same time, followed by the simultaneous forwarding of the legs. The pole must be between both legs.
The jump must be made at right angles to the pole. When the altitude is too high, you lose strength and jump to the other side is not adequate.
Each player must locate his proper jump. Its purpose is to smoothly switch from the optimum speed of run-up to upward movement, without losing too much speed.
Gripping the pole with your hands should take place at least at eye level or slightly higher. This is important for a smooth transition from rushing to climbing.
The too high grip makes it difficult to pull up. If the grip is too low, this makes it difficult to climb gently.
Collaterally with raising your arms, extend your legs forward. At the same time, the head must be kept straight. In this way, the weight of the body and strength the speed of run-up from the flow are evenly distributed. Swinging also helps you climb higher on the pole and thus achieve a longer jump.
After grabbing the pole you have to lock your feet around it and pull up as high as possible. The hands can be moved up together or in rotation. Simultaneous shifting gives a calm style of climbing, but it costs more strength of the leg. Moving hands one by one gives a "wild style" of climbing, but it requires less leg strength. Right-handed jumpers surround the pole with their left foot. Left-handed jumpers surround the pole with their right foot. The climbing cycle consists of:
• Move your hand up while straightening your legs.
• Raising your knees and immediately blocking your feet on the pole.
• Straightening the legs.
It is possible to move from about 70 cm to 1 meter in one pull-up cycle. This, of course, depends on the height of the player.
The landing is one of the most difficult element. Partly because it is a complicated technique, and partly because it is the last section of the total jump.
The hardest part is when the landing begins and the pole is about 45 ° to the ground which is sand.
The competitor should take the pole as far as possible with stretch out arms and with both hands together. Then he throws the body forward, twisting it at the same time by 180 ° and bending upwards. If the whole operation is carried out correctly, then the whole speed and strength allow you to be pushed forward.
- Current status:
Official competitions in the Netherlands are organized by: Polsstokbond Holland (PHB) and Frysk Ljeppers Boun (FLB). The National Sports Association - de Nederlandse Fierljepbond (NFB) is the organizer of the annual national-ranking competitions in which PHB and FLB athletes participate, as well as nationwide championships. The competition is held in the provinces of Friesland (Bergum, Buitenpost, It Heidenskip, IJlst, Joure and Winsum), Groningen (Grijpskerk), Utrecht (Jaarsveld, Linschoten, Polsbroekerdam, Zegveld, Haarzuilens and Kamerik) and Zuid-Holland (Vlist). The Dutch championships in Fierljeppen are held every year at the Grijpskerk Arena, from the 1930s.
The current Dutch record holders by category are:
• Veterans: 20.60 m (67 ft 7 inches), Theo van Kooten from Haastrecht, South Holland (31 July 2013, Linschoten).
• Seniors: 22.21 meters (72 feet 10 inches), Jaco de Groot from Woerden, Utrecht (12 August 2017, Zegveld).
• Juniors: 20.41 m (67 feet 0 inches), Joris de Jong from Dokkum, Friesland (9 August 2016, Dokkum); other sources give: 20.70 m; Erwin Timmerarends from Montfoort (August 15 2015, Zegveld);
• Boys: 19.81 meters; Reinier Overbeek from Benschop (July 30 2017, It Heidenskip)
• Women: 17.58 meters (57 feet 8 inches) Marrit van der Wal from It Heidenskip, Friesland (16 July 2016, Burgum)
• Girls: 16,57 meters; Marrit van der Wal with It Heidenskip in IJlst (17 August 2014, IJlst)
There are 532 registered active jumpers in the world; 190 of them are from the Netherlands.
The sports season runs from May to September.
Polsstokbond Holland - http://www.pbholland.com/
Frysk Ljeppers Boun - http://fierljeppen.frl/
Polsstokkerdam - http://polsstokkerdam.nl/
Polsstokclub Linschoten - http://polsstokclublinschoten.nl/
Nederlandse Fierljep Bond - http://www.nederlandsefierljepbond.nl/
Polsstokclub de Vlist - http://www.polsstokclubdevlist.nl/
Polsstokvereninging Jaarsveld - http://www.polsstokjaarsveld.nl/
B.K. Fierljrppen Hamont - http://www.fierljeppen.be/
Ljeppersklub Buitenpost - http://www.ljeppersklubbuitenpost.nl/
Fierljepferiening Drylts E.O. - http://www.fierljeppenijlst.nl/
Fierljeppen Heidenskip - http://www.fierljeppe.nl/
Fierljep Feriening Winsum e.o. - http://www.fierljeppenwinsum.frl/
Fierleppen in Grijpskerk - http://fierljeppeningrijpskerk.nl/
Fierljepvereniging De Lege Wâlden Joure - http://www.fierljeppenjoure.nl/
- Sources of information :
Fierljeppen - Canal vaulting in Holland - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YP32iWoqjnQ
Fierljeppen former Dutch record (woman) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeMAMv6GaJQ
FIERLJEPPEN: Hoogtepunten NK Fierljeppen 2017 -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSiD92FbrFQ
Nationale Competitie Fierljeppen/Polsstokverspringen - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFRAtLJ4NnU