Europe

Platzgen (Switzerland)

Name of sport (game): Platzgen
Name in native language: Platzgen
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Switzerland

History:

Platzgen is a Swiss sport that has its origins in the Middle Ages and is mainly played in the canton of Bern.

Description:

The aim of the game is to place a specially made metal disc ("Platzge") with a maximum diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1-3 kg over a distance of 17 m (men) or 11.5 m (women) into a circular clay target "Ries".

Ries

Ries has a diameter of 1.4 m and is increased by 25 cm at the back. In the middle of the Ries there is a 35 to 40 cm high iron stick ("Schwirren"), which is perpendicular to the target surface.

platzge03
The maximum number of points of 100 is reached when the Platzge touches the Schwirren. One point is deducted for every centimeter from the Schwirren.

platzgen 2015 14 20150930 1459692015

 

Current status:

Practiced

Contacts:

 logo

Web: www.platzgen.ch 

Sources of information :

Video:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUDEM3K9LNI 
www.youtube.com/watch?v=srhbDBKBsVw 
www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN1-C0gHS6E 

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfplatzgen.pdf

Pontoniersport (Switzerland)

Name of sport (game): Pontoniersport
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Switzerland

Description:

It's a competition for racing with transfer boats (Weidlingen) in an obstacle course.
The pontoon sport is a traditional water sport in Switzerland. He is supported by the Eidg. Departement für Verteidigung, Bevölkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS). This sport mainly involves rowing and spiking on rivers and lakes with transfer boats and weidlings. In addition to strength, this sport also requires extensive knowledge of the element of water. In contrast to driving on the water, not only short times are expected of the competitors in pontooning, but also - as training for bridge building - enormous precision when driving.
The term comes from the pontoons, those hollow ship bodies used to build mostly makeshift bridges. There is a connection between the pontooning driving clubs (also pontooning sports clubs) and the pontooning in the military sector.

Contacts:

Schweizerischer Pontonier-Sportverband

logo

www.pontonier.ch 
www.youtube.com/user/pontonierfilm 

Sources of information :

Video:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLC4Um3ZVr8 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gicZ09APgA

Gallery:

Popinjay shooting (Slovenia)

Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Slovenia, Danmark

History:

Christian Claus C Tilly Danish 18001879 Popinjay shooting on Amager Island Denmark 1836
Christian (Claus C.) Tilly (Danish, 1800–1879), Popinjay shooting on Amager Island, Denmark, 1836

Pulso de pica (Spain)

Name of sport (game): Pulso de pica
Name in native language: Pulso de pica
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Aragon, Spain

History:

It is the sport of Andalusian cattle herders, but it quickly caught on in Aragon and became popular throughout its territory.

juego de la picaSource: https://misjuegostradicionales.wordpress.com/juegos-tradicionales-aragoneses/juego-de-la-pica/

Description:

Pulso de pica is a sport that requires strength and technique. The confrontation between two opponents is to push one of them out of the circle with the long stick they are both holding.
To compete, you need a stick (most often made of pine or beech wood), the length of which is 2-2.5 meters and a diameter of 4-5 centimeters. A circle with a diameter of about 4 meters should also be marked on the ground (the ground should be flat).
The players enter the circle and catch the stick (held by the judge) at both ends, facing each other. The grip is one hand, the stick is placed under the armpit, and the other hand is hidden behind you. The center of the stick must be in the center of the circle for both of them to have equal chances.
First, the judge commands "agarrar" (grab), then "tensar" (push). However, the competition only starts when the referee raises his hands (stopping the stick) and commands "tiro".
Various techniques are allowed, e.g. sitting down, moving around, but the stick should be grasped only on your side (you cannot cross the center with your hand).
Most often, the competition lasts up to three wins.
It should be remembered that the judge may give penalties for releasing the stick, touching the stick to the ground, detaching the stick from the body, etc.

Current status:

Practiced

Sources of information :

Articles:
https://aragondeporteytradicion.blogspot.com/2019/09/pulso-de-pica.html?m=1&fbclid=IwAR2Dbyjp9-1mH160MxAfYwTuUvDLlwAFpSb6ySRrcxMt3Nt5rnkfk9-zSTs 

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPiR8n4vVmg 

 

Source of photos used in this article:
https://juegostradicionales.net/pulso-de-pica/
http://aragondeporteytradicion.blogspot.com/2019/09/pulso-de-pica.html
https://jugaje.com/es/culture2000/Aragon/Pulseo%20de%20Pica%20espagnol.htm
https://misjuegostradicionales.wordpress.com/juegos-tradicionales-aragoneses/juego-de-la-pica/
https://www.fanyanas.com/2011/08/el-tiro-de-barra-en-fananas-y.html

Gallery:

Quilles neuchâtelois (Switzerland)

Name of sport (game): Quilles neuchâtelois, Neuchâtel skittles
Name in native language: Quilles neuchâtelois
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Switzerland (Neuchâtel)

History:

The heyday of this convivial game was the late 19th and early 20th century; by the 1960s its popularity had waned considerably. Outdoor bowling alleys were set up next to métairies – country inns that were adjacent to dairy farms, and synonymous with the Neuchâtel Jura. Over time, these went to seed as open-air bowling fell out of favour. In contrast, indoor bowling alleys, many of which date back to the 1930s are still used and maintained by the four local skittles clubs.

pobrane 1

Description:

Neuchâtel skittles, a forerunner of ten-pin bowling, is a game where players try to knock down nine bowling pins with a wooden ball. What makes the Neuchâtel version unique is that the bowling alley consists of two planks of wood that are joined together to form an upturned V-shape. A pinsetter ensures that the skittles are placed in their correct position. One point is given for each overturned skittle, however the throw does not count if the player fails to knock over the front skittle.
Players practice every week and compete against one another in various tournaments, such as the “Course Suisse”, the “Challenge de l’Impartial”, the “Championnat de l’Intercantonale”, and the very special “Challenge du 60e “, which is played at clearly defined intervals over a 10-year period. The winner is the club which has recorded the most victories during the 10 years.
Source: http://wwwt.lbtr.admin.ch/traditionen/00166/index.html?lang=en

Current status:

L'Association Intercantonale des joueurs de boules Grand jeu neuchâtelois currently groups together 4 clubs.
Its objective is the promotion and sustainability of this particular bowling game in the Neuchâtel Mountains region.

Contacts:

Association Intercantonale des joueurs de boules Grand jeu neuchâtelois
Tel. +41 79 675 72 71
http://www.quilles.ch/
Fb: https://www.facebook.com/quillesneuchateloises/
logo Association

Sources of information :

Video:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=222tl6_ofXc 
www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_a3UP7SY2o 
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZtjZGjAwfc 

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfNeuenburgerKegelspiel_dossier.pdf

Quoits (England, Wales, Scotland, USA)

Name of sport (game): Quoits
Name in native language: Quoits
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

England, Wales, Scotland, USA

History:

Source: https://www.historicalfolktoys.com/catcont/3012.html

The game of quoits may have evolved from ancient Greece, where athletes enjoyed throwing a discus for competition. Peter Brown, president of the National Quoits Association, believes that the Greeks passed quoits to the Romans as a weapon of war. His theory continues with the thought that the Romans brought the game to Britain. He even suggests that the origins of the game go back to the Minoan Empire circa 2000 B.C. because the boy king of Knossos evidently used quoits as a weapon on slaves if they tried to escape.
Quoits was made illegal in 1388 by Sporting Regulations, but by the 15th century, it had become a favorite organized sport in English pubs and taverns. The first official rules for the game of quoits were printed in the April, 1881, edition of The Field in northern England. The National Quoits Association was formed in 1986.
There are several different games of quoits being played in England today: The Northern Game, The Long Game, East Anglian Quoits, and Sward or Lawn Quoits. Sward Quoits is played with a clay square to which the stake or hob is set in, but it can become muddy and difficult to maintain. Many people happily adapt this game and its rules for backyard play with the hob or stake set in the grass.

Winslow Homer Pitching Quoits 1865Winslow Homer, Pitching Quoits, 1865

Quoits was played during the American Revolutionary War by both British and Continental soldiers to pass the time. It has been said that the game of horseshoes was derived from quoits because some people could not afford to have quoits made, so they used what was similarly available: old horseshoes!
Miniature versions of indoor quoits were played near the Welsh-English border for at least a century. It seems that the game was invented toward the end of the 19th century, but the history of indoor quoits is not really known. A game called Rings was played in Northern England. Now, many variations of the game exist. "Deck quoits" were made from rope and used on cruise ships. "Rope quoits" is probably the same game and is popular in Australia. English and Welsh descendants in parts of Pennsylvania play the game with the hob set at a slight angle on a slate board instead of a clay bed because they resided in "the slate belt."

April 2 1894 Shows group of young men playing quoits on ship deckApril 2, 1894, Shows group of young men playing quoits on ship deck

Newcastle Miners playing Quoits printed in 1843Newcastle Miners playing Quoits, printed in 1843

Description:

Source: http://www.quoitsdirect.com/QuoitRules.htm

STARTING A GAME:
The quoit boards are placed 18 feet on center (from hub to hub).
One-on-one - You pitch from the same side of the boards when you travel to the opposing board. Non-diagonally. (One-on-One Positions).
One on One PositionsTwo-on-two (a.k.a. couples or doubles) - Your partner pitches from the diagonal side of the board (Two-on-Two Positions).
Two on Two PositionsThere are 4 quoits (2 for you and 2 for your partner). You can determine who throws the first pitch of the first game. After the first game the loser of the prior game makes the first pitch to start the new game.
Pitching turns alternate with each quoit.
The pitcher's forward foot may not extend beyond the hub of his "home" board.

quoits

DETERMINING THE SCORE:
The first person or team to reach a score of 21 wins the game.
Every "ringer" (meaning the quoit landed on the hub) is worth 3 points.
P1 Ringer 3 pointsIf a player should make a ringer and have his second quoit closer to the hub than his opponent, he receives 4 points (Three points for the ringer and 1 point for the quoit closest to the hub).
Each ringer pitched counts as 3 points, except when the same player pitches two ringers, one directly on top of the other. This player is then awarded 3 additional points, for a total of 6 points.
P3 Two Top Ringers from same person 6 pointsWhen the first player pitches a ringer which is topped by an opponent, it is the opponent only who receives 3 points.
P2 Ringer Topped by Opponent 3 pointsWhen the first player pitches a ringer which is topped by an opponent and then topped by the first player again, the last ringer made by the first player counts as 3 points for the first player. As a premium, when four ringers are made, the player pitching the last ringer wins the game.
Every "leaner" (meaning the quoit is leaning against or on top of the hub, but not a ringer) is worth 1 point.
P4 Leaner 1 pointIf there are no ringers and leaners the person who throws the closest quoit gets one point. If the same person's second quoit is the next closest he/she gets two points.
P5 Same person threw the two closest points 2 points The rings on the board are used to determine the closest quoit. If you can not determine the closest quoit from the front side (closest side of the quoit to the hub) you can usually determine it by comparing the backside (the side of the quoits furthest from the hub) to the outer rings.
P6 Winning point easily determined by outer ringIf a quoit is touching the ground, or has touched the ground, it is a "dead quoit". Remove it from the board before the next pitch. If you don't remove it any quoits that touch a dead quoit are also dead.
P7 Dead Quoit does not countA quoit can be hanging off the side of the board. As long as it has not touched the ground the quoit is still good.
P8 Hanging Quoit still countsThis is called the daylight rule because you can see "daylight" through the quoit since it is hanging off of the board. This rule is sometimes disputed so decide if you want to play "Daylight Counts" before you start playing against your opponent.
Interference due to a wandering dog or small child (which sometimes happens) is grounds for a "re-throw" (a.k.a. do-over) if the quoit is deflected during release or in mid-air.

court layout

firld with soft clay

 

Source: https://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Quoits.htm

The Northern Game
The Association of Amateur Quoits Clubs for the North of England was the name give to the official body that laid down the 15 rules that were published in "The Field" in 1881. This set of rules constituted what is now called The Northern Game and it has remained largely unchanged ever since. Although the Northern Game has lost some of it's popularity, it is still played seriously and enthusiastically in the North of England under the auspices of The National Quoits Association which was formed in 1986 and is undergoing something of a resurgence of late.

The Long Game
Quoits however, is a split sport, much like the game of Rugby, because independently, Wales and Scotland have long been playing a distinctly different game with a similar proud history. In fact, "The Long Game" or "The Old Game" is also played in parts of England, notably East Anglia and Liverpool , but is far more rare in that country as the new century begins.
In the Northern game, if more than one quoit lands on the hob, then only the top quoit scores whereas in the Long Game, the scoring is simply that a player scores a point for each quoit nearer to the pin than his opponent. The reason for this is that the pin in the Long Game is knocked down flush with the clay surface so encircling the pin is not really a significant part of the game. The Long Game then is more akin to Bowls in play with the pin acting as a simple target. However, this simplicity belies the difficulty of the game which, in common with many celtic sports, is a test of strength as much as skill. The hobs are 18 yards apart, fully 7 yards greater than the Northern Game while the quoits are typically around 9 inches in diameter and weigh up to 11 pounds, almost double that of the Northern game.

East Anglian Quoits
The long game is still played in England at the turn of the century but in a modified form that sees the quoits reduced in size and somewhat different rules being adopted. The English stopped fielding a side at the internationals some time ago presumably because the differences between the two variations had grown two large and the gap could not be easily bridged. The East Anglian game is unique in that ringers score a clean two points regardless of the opponent's efforts and are immediately removed prior to the next throw. Quoits on their backs and quoits that land inclined in a backwards direction are discounted and also removed immediately. The quoits tend to be smaller than those used in the Scottish and Welsh games but the distance is maintained at 18 yards.

Sward or Lawn Quoits
The difficulty of maintaining the clay squares and the muddiness that can occur on a wet day makes genuine traditional quoits a rare sport. However, all is not lost because for many decades people have been playing a more simple version by simply putting 2 stakes in a lawn. Organisers of fetes, horse fairs and similar public functions sometimes set up temporary quoits pitches in this way and such games are often referred to as Sward Quoits. Sward Quoits has it's own varying complexities depending upon the type of ground being played upon and the height of the hobs and so forth. People wishing to play quoits in their back gardens or any open space happily emulate Sward Quoits in the same way.

pairquoits

Current status:

Practiced.


Source: https://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Quoits.htm

A traditional miniaturised version of Indoor Quoits has existed around the Welsh/English border for at least a century and a game called Rings was popular in the North in the 1930s.
info press 1While all the above traditional English games survive to the modern day, many modern variants can be found using either home-made equipment or interpretations from modern manufacturers. Deck Quoits played with quoits made from rope has been a popular pastime on cruise ships for decades. Rope Quoits, which is presumably the same game, has recently become a trendy outdoor activity, especially in Australia.

The USA has a burgeoning Quoits community around New Jersey although the distance they put between the quoits seems to be much reduced at 21 feet (7 yards). Another derivative seems to have become popular around Pennsylvania where the hobs are set 6 yards apart on slightly angled slate boards instead of clay beds. The heart of this game is an area called, for obvious reasons, "the slate belt", populated by people of primarily English and Welsh descent. Pennsylvania also has some clay bed pitches.

Canada, too, has enjoyed a surge of Quoits interest throughout the 1990's that seems to be centred around Nova Scotia and Ontario. The sport is also played in Colombia under the name Tejo.

Current leagues Traditional quoits:

United Kingdom
Allen Valley Quoits League, Northumberland
Danby Invitation Quoits League, North Yorkshire
Lower Dales Quoits League, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire Moors League, North Yorkshire
Montgomeryshire County Quoits League, Montgomeryshire
Mount Bures (Essex) Quoits Team
Bures, (Suffolk) Quoits Team

United States
United States Quoiting Association (USQA)
Mercer County Church Steel Quoit League, New Jersey
Pottstown German Club 3lb League, Pottstown Pa
Slate Belt Men's Quoit League, Bangor PA

info press

Contacts:

The United States Quoiting Association
Webside: https://www.usqa.org/
Fb: https://www.facebook.com/quoitinamerica/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKrz0jcU-GPA0JG90ixUuUg
united states quoiting association logo

The Lower Dales Quoits League
Webside: http://www.lowerdalesquoits.co.uk/

Bures Quoit League
Webside: http://www.bures-online.co.uk/Quoits/quoits.htm

Mercer County Church Steel Quoit League
Webside: http://mccsql.tripod.com/

Zetland Quoits League
Fb: https://www.facebook.com/Zetlandquoits

Sources of information :

Articles:
https://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Quoits.htm 

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uaw5sm-xN4 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3yC8VdnSVtc 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdvojNs6mlU 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnWUz58mLxA 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZ3lq6fwK1k 

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfOfficial_USQA_Rules.pdf

pdfQUOIT-RULES.pdf

pdfQuoiting_On_Line_Exhibition.pdf

Rackets (England)

Name of sport (game): Rackets
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

United Kingdom, United States and Canada

History:

In its earliest form during the 18th Century, Rackets was played in the open on the walls of the yards of the two main debtor's prisons, the King's Bench and the Fleet. Gentlemen, imprisoned until they could find the wherewithal to repay their creditors, amused themselves with many different activities around the prison yard. These included skittles, fives, which was played both with the hand and a bat (as at Westminster School), and some brought tennis racquets with them and improvised against any convenient wall, sometimes with no side walls and always without a back wall.
There is mention of Rackets at the Fleet in a poem of 1749 and in John Howard's report on the state of prisons in England and Wales published in 1780. It is not until the early 1800s that Rackets becomes part of life outside the prisons. In his Book of Sports and Mirror of Life published by Pierce Egan in 1832, there is a long description of Rackets mentioning several open rackets courts other than the King's Bench and the Fleet. One of these was at the Belvedere Tavern, Pentonville, where most of the Open Court Championships were played. Others were to be found elsewhere in London, again at public houses, at the Eagle Tavern on the City Road, The White Bear Kennington, the White Conduit House, and the Rosemary Branch, Peckham.”

KFRackets
Source: https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rackets_(sport)

There are further records of courts at Bristol, Bath, Birmingham and Belfast. Egan states that if a gentleman sought a game at a tavern he would have to mix with those not of the highest rank in society. Implicit in this observation is that the debtors prison may have had a higher class of player (in both meanings of the word), and mention is made of a Major Campbell who was the best player in the King's Bench through having been incarcerated there for fourteen years. Spectators as well as prison visitors often came to watch matches in the prisons. Dickens mentions Rackets in the Pickwick Papers, as Mr Pickwick had the misfortune to be incarcerated in the Fleet. From Dickens' description the Fleet court appears to have had a front wall and one sidewall similar to a Jai Alai fronton. In 1814 there were four courts at the King's Bench and six Racket masters to look after them. Early courts outside the prisons had a front wall only, about 40 feet wide and 45 ft high.
Outside prisons and taverns, Harrow was the first school at which Rackets was played, probably from the early 1820s when the schoolyard was enlarged. When the first Lawn Tennis Championships were played at Wimbledon later in the century, Old Harrovian Rackets player Spencer Gore would win the singles.

Rackets Court interior and layout

Interior of the Eglinton Castle Rackets Hall in 1842.
Source: https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rackets_(sport)

In the middle of the 19th Century, Rackets played in covered courts began to predominate. The MCC built a court in 1844 next to the old Tennis court, and the old Princes Club opened in 1853 with several courts as well as two Tennis courts. The main competition court at Princes set the standard dimensions for most closed courts built from then up to the present day, being 60' long by 30' wide. Before this on the open courts, doubles was played on a court of 80' x 40' with two players playing up at the front of the court and two at the back.
Furthermore, and again about the middle of the 19th century, the growing popularity of the indoor game caused Rackets at the open courts attached to public houses to fall into desuetude. Rackets increasingly developed as a game for the wealthy. Although Lord West built a court at Buckhurst Park in Sussex in the 1850s and The Earl of Eglinton and Winton built one at Eglinton Castle, his home in Scotland, Rackets did not take off as a private country house game to the same extent as Tennis did later in the century.
Both Oxford and Cambridge universities had courts by 1855, the date of the first Varsity match. There were courts built at Torquay in 1859 and the first covered court at Harrow school, built in 1865. This has recently been reconstructured to create the Prenn Hue Williams Court.
Devonshire Park at Eastbourne included a Rackets court built in 1870 as part of its general recreational facilities. Between 1870 and 1890, courts were built at the new Princes Club, Manchester, Liverpool and in 1888 the courts at The Queen's Club were opened.

Source: www.tennisandrackets.com/rackets/history/evolution 

Description:

Rackets is played in a 30-by-60-foot (9.1 by 18.3 m) enclosed court, with a ceiling at least 30 feet (9.1 m) high. Singles and doubles are played on the same court. The walls and floor of the court are made of smooth stone or concrete and are generally dark in colour to contrast with the white ball. A player uses 30.5-inch (77 cm) wooden racket to hit a 38 mm (1.5 inch) hard white ball weighing 28 grams (1 oz). Championship quality Balls are made via two different sources. One such ball is manufactured in America using a machine developed by former Marlborough professional Bill Gordon and the other type is manufactured in England by former Winchester professional Peter Ashford. The Rackets ball is durable and can last for months at a time, however its outer covering (strong tape) has to be recovered regularly. With regard to the racket itself, as of February 2021, two companies produce rackets racquets, Grays of Cambridge (UK) and Gold Leaf Athletics (US).
In gameplay, a good stroke must touch the front wall above a 26.5 inches (67 cm) high wooden (often cloth-covered) board before touching the floor. The ball may touch the side walls before reaching the front wall. The player returning a good stroke may play the ball on the volley, or after one bounce on the floor. Gameplay is basically identical to squash, albeit without drop shots or lobs! The speed of the ball and tension of the racket strings used means that the play is fast, and potentially dangerous. Lets (replayed points) are common, as the striker should not play the ball if doing so risks hitting another player. Yet unlike in squash, strokes are not given if a player gets in the way such is the often exciting and frenetic gameplay. However, this danger is minimal, since the patient coaching all players receive engrain a solid tactical awareness in all participants. Matches are normally observed by a "marker" and a “referee”, who has the duty to call "Play" after each good stroke to denote that the ball is "up". Games are to 15 points, unless the game is tied at 13–all or 14–all, in which case the game can be "set" to 16 or 18 (in the case of 13–all) or to 15 or 17 (in the case of 14–all) at the option of the player first reaching 13 or 14. Only the server (hand-in) can score—the receiver (hand-out) who wins a rally becomes the server. Return of service can be extremely difficult, and, in North America, only one serve is allowed. At the top level of the game, aces (when a server beats their opponent without their opponent touching the ball) are somewhat rarer which results in physically draining rallies. Matches are typically best of five games, but earlier rounds of some tournaments can be best of 3 games - or even an adapted 'first to 30 points' game.
The main shots played are the volley, forehand and the backhand all similar to the way one plays these in squash. Yet, in recent years the game of rackets has incorporated much greater scope for innovation in the form of reverse angles and use of power rather than the more traditional use of placement and ‘cut’. In any case, the rules and scoring in squash have evolved in the last hundred years or so whereas Rackets has changed little; the main difference today is that players are now allowed brief rest periods between games. In the past, leaving the court could mean forfeiting the match, so players kept spare rackets, shirts, and shoes in the gutter below the ‘tin’ on the front wall! This was often cumbersome and the rules were changed to allow players to leave the court to change their racket mid-game and also to have a break between games. Continuous play is paramount and a game of singles or doubles is an exhilarating spectacle and guaranteed entertainment for participants and spectators alike.
Source: www.tennisandrackets.com/rackets/court-game/about 

 atbhopton2014
https://thesporting.blog/blog/2017/9/13/know-the-game-rackets 

Current status:

The Neptune World Ranking System
The first official ranking list was created in Rackets in 2010/11 as an evolution of the Big-Red System and has been adapted to suit the current fixture calendar. The initial ranking system was sponsored by Neptune Investment Management, including both male and female competitors, and incorporated all tournament matches and assigned every player a nominal ‘ranking point’ rating which determined their position in the world. Players could win or lose points depending on their performance in the tournaments during a season, at which point at the end of the season a player was ‘re-calibrated’ (denoting an increase in points due to their participation in more than one tournament) or ‘eroded’ (reducing their number of points due to inactivity).
This system was refined over the summer of 2020 and many of the earlier inaccuracies and anomalies removed; and now needs further play to authenticate itself. This system is, however, slow moving in the top ten due to its source code being predicated on a zero-sum algorithm but is reasonably representative for those players below the top 15-20. Following reform of the World Challenge process a new Elite System was introduced in 2014/5 which is now used predominantly to seed major tournaments.

The Elite System
In the Elite Ranking System, for both singles and doubles, players accumulate points individually and as a designated doubles partnership in specified Qualifying Tournaments (QTs) to determine their Elite World Singles Ranking, which would also be linked to their World Championship Challenge points standing.

The singles ranking system has been refined in January 2021 to run over a rolling three-year cycle, with the current year carrying higher points than the previous year, itself higher than the year before. This add relevance to the ranking.
There are currently plans to evolve the doubles ranking system as an individual system, so a pair is the sum of its components. The finer details are still being defined.
Seeding for major tournament, including all QTs, are taken from the top of the Elite System, following by the Neptune World ranking System for those below the threshold.

The World Challenge
Players and doubles partnerships accumulate points in a two-year Qualifying Period (QP), with the top ranked player/pair (excluding the holder/holders of the World Championship title) winning through to play in the World Championship. In recent years ‘eliminator’ matches have been used to determine a challenger for the world championship. An Eliminator (if necessary) and a Challenge Match are scheduled to take place every two years, but not where the current World Champion has won three out of the four US Opens and British Opens and one Tier 2 Qualifying Tournament in either North America or UK during the Qualifying Period and does not wish to defend. In the event that the reigning World Champion has won the requisite events to stave off a defense, it would be the choice of the existing champion to decide whether he/she would defend. The World Championship procedures have been refined in the 2010s to accommodate a fast-improving group of ‘world class’ players who are able to compete on the global tour.

The Men’s World Championship (in both singles and doubles) is a best of seven game match played over two legs. The Women’s World Championship is a best of five game match where a potential challenger wins through to play against the reigning World Champion.

Source: www.tennisandrackets.com/rackets/court-game/ranking-procedures 

Contacts:

The Tennis & Rackets Association

The T&RA Ltd
c/o The Queen’s Club
Palliser Road
West Kensington
London
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Sources of information :

Video:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=7c3CF7bDtoM 

Gallery:

Ranggeln (Austria)

Name of sport (game): Ranggeln
Name in native language: Ranggeln
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Austria (Salzburg, Tyrol)

History:

1875 pic RanggelnRanggel, 1875

 

Description:

Ranggeln is played on grass, outdoor, during the summer festivals, and on mats during the winter season.Several weight and age categories.
The wrestlers (men or women) wear a special shirt & trouser. Wrestlers can grip anywhere in clothes: jacket and trouser. The goal is to put the opponent back to the ground on the two shoulders at the same time (even by rolling).

Rebatta (Italy)

Name of sport (game): Rebatta
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Valle d'Aosta, Italy

Rigcats (Sweden)

Name of sport (game): Rigcats
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Swden

Ringen (Germany)

Name of sport (game): Ringen
Name in native language: Ringen (German Folk Freestyle Wrestling)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Germany

History:

The German folk wrestling style called Ringen was researched by the famous XIX century sports historian and gymnastics teacher Karl Wassmannsdorff (1821-1906), PhD. He was also a Knight of the Order of the Zähringer Lion. In his book called “Medieval German Wrestling with 119 illustrations of Albrecht Dürer” he provides a detailed analysis of German wrestling traditions. According to Wassmannsdorff, the folk wrestling of German people (Ringen) was after the freestyle fashion (Kür-Ringen). 

Historically, this style was practiced in two modes, standing wrestling and up and down wrestling. In the former the objective of the match was to give opponent a fall on his back (two shoulders touching the ground simultaneously constituted the fall) with or without attacker falling himself (all falls were flying falls), and in the latter it was necessary at first to take your opponent down, then achieve the uppermost position and make your adversary quit any resistance by keeping him immovable underneath you that he’ll admit his defeat verbally (all falls were pinfalls). Over the time those two modes of German freestyle Ringen have evolved into one universal wrestling style the Ranggeln which allowed all kinds of back falls (flying, rolling, and pinning).

Pietro Monti (1457-1509) a master of arms from Milan (Italy) in his famous work called “De Dignoscendis Hominibus” (1492) describes the wrestling customs of the German people as follows: “They commonly grab the legs with their hands,” “They consider all things permissible in order to overcome the opponent,” ”They also wrestle with their feet and hands on the ground like quadrupeds.”

Notably, when in 1840 the famous pioneer of French/Graeco-Roman style Jean Dupuis (1799-1888) promoted his “Olympic Games Wrestling” in Bayreuth (Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany) he was challenged to a wrestling match according to the local customs by a farmer called Conrad Münch. His style called “Ringen Bauern Art” (wrestling after the peasants’ fashion) was described as “wrestling without any conditions”, or free for all wrestling.

Besides Kür-Ringen there also was an Old Ringen style which only allowed holds of the torso above the waist. In that particular style headlocks, use of hip/back for throwing as well as tripping/hooking were all strictly prohibited. Wrestlers started the match in either equal hold (above and under hug) which they didn’t have to maintain or at a distance facing each other. Old Ringen also existed in two different modes: standing wrestling for a throw and up and down wrestling. The great account of Old Ringen was given in “Castle Czvargas,” an 1899 book by Australian author Archibald Birt (1862-1943): “The undercatch was fought for desperately. But these men were not content with the fair throw, but must needs be to grovel and scramble on the ground, struggling furiously, until one made the shoulders of the other touch the earth together.” Notably, Birt pointed out that tripping which was the key skill in English Folk wrestling wasn’t allowed in that particular style.

The Old Ringen wrestling has evolved from a primitive trial of strength called Gürtelringen (belt wrestling). This vintage all-Germanic style was an equal fixed hold standing wrestling. The “right hand over and left hand under” holds were taken of two handles attached to the thick leathern belts buckled about the waist, and which were prevented by straps from shifting. No use of legs or feet for throwing was allowed during the matches. The objective of the match was to throw opponent flat on his back (two shoulders touching ground simultaneously) with or without attacker falling himself. The matches were played 2 out of 3 falls. The main techniques of that style were: lifting adversary off his feet and taking him down or throwing him over the head, or pulling him towards yourself and overturn him backwards, or simply swaying opponent from side to side and trying to unbalance him thus causing a fall. The weight of wrestler and his physical strength were decisive factors for winning those contests. In the second half of XIX century this style was popularized all around Eastern Europe and was known as the Swiss belt wrestling. Among the prominent practitioners of Gürtelringen was Emil Voss of Stettin, Pomerania (now Szczecin, Poland). In the 1880s this style was brought to Russia and taught as the “Russo-Swiss Wrestling” at the St. Petersburg’s Athletic and Cycling Club of Dr. Wladislaw Krajewski. The professional Gürtelringen matches were regularly performed in circuses as a part of the wrestling entertainment. All the best Russian Graeco-Roman wrestlers had Gürtelringen background.

German freestyle wrestling as a form of self-defense was covered in the 1443 wrestling manual by German Hans Talhoffer of Swabia. In his book he refers to the famous Ott Jud wrestling master to the princes of Austria. This book described and included illustrations of various wrestling holds and positions known as: the beginning with equal arm grip, warding off, hip wrestling, arm lock around the hip, the throw over the head and, and several others. Leading Dutch painter Marten van Heemskerck in 1552 produced a series of sketches on fencing and Germanic wrestling. But probably the best visualization of that style was a drawing produced by the famous Dutch engraver Daniël Veelwaard (1766-1851) for the previously mentioned famous book by GutsMuths called “Gymnastics for Youth.” His drawing shows a wrestling match in five episodes, starting with the opening hold (upper arms hold), includes two ways of throwing, and finishing with the fair back fall (pinning fall). The first throw is an artistic "flying horse" performed with the wrist and knee-hold. The second throw is more pragmatic "hype" with the tight hold around the waist (bear hug). It’s interesting that Veelwaard chose to show both sides of that universal wrestling style - artistic and pragmatic.

Other famous wrestling authors of that era included:

• Fabian von Auerswald (1462 – 1537). He served as a wrestling coach to John Frederick, the Duke of Saxony.

• Paulus Hector Meyer of Augsburg (1517 – 1579).

• Nicolaes Petter (1624 – 1672). He was a Dutch wrestling master of German descent. His wrestling/self-defense manuals were illustrated by the famous Dutch Baroque painter Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708).

To settle quarrels, besides actual wrestling, Medieval Germans used rough and tumble up and down fighting called Raufen (Scuffling). All kinds of wrestling holds (including illegal holds) as well as punching and kicking were allowed in Raufen. The Raufen combat was an exhibition of animalistic brutality and featured atrocities like biting, gouging and etc. The use of various small weapons in this kind of fight was permitted and negotiated prior to the contest. Notably, the proficiency in the art of wrestling was a key factor in winning any fight. In fact Raufen was a degenerated form of Ringen. Sometimes Raufen matches attracted local gamblers and were of “professional challenge” nature since the considerable sums were at stake. Thus Raufen became illegal and since then was practiced by the low order (local ruffians).

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Description:

There were two kinds of starts in Ringen matches: Zulauf (wrestlers begin the match at a distance from each other looking for an opening and suddenly attack) and Close Wrestling (wrestlers begin the match in close quarters).

Often a Zulauf wrestling start was the ancient Germanic trial of strength called Drücken/Auf die knie zwingen (bringing someone down to his knees). In this case two wrestlers would rush into each other and catch-hold of one another by the hands intertwining their fingers and using all their strength, would try to force their opponent down to his knees. Often a Close Wrestling start was the Peasants’ Grip (Bauern-Griff), an equal above and under hold around the body/waist. This “hug” also originated in old Germanic trial of strength. The objective was to take opponent down using physical strength only (lifting him up or swaying him from side to side), without using any wrestling techniques. In Ringen contestants didn’t have to maintain their initial holds and would break and switch holds and use deceiving maneuvers to try to achieve an advantageous hold which lead to a throw.

Swiss Catch was after the German fashion, it was known as Ringen der Entlebucher (wrestling style of the residents of Entlebuch District, Switzerland), or Rutzen/Ruschen (to rush into someone with violent force causing a fall). That style was example of Zulauf wrestling. In that wrestling style the opening hold wasn’t practiced. Instead the wrestlers would start in a free stance a distance away from each other ready for an immediate acceleration and attack.

The most accepted technique of Zulauf wrestling was called “Bulls” (Stieren). Two men would rush in towards each other like bulls trying to catch the optimal hold and then throw opponent backwards “heels over the head” (Suplex). The most popular throw was the famous “head between the legs” or Back Body Drop of modern pro wrestling. Those dangerous throws caused many a broken neck. Among tactics used in the close wrestling were: throwing over the hip (hip lift technique) called Hufen or Huefen (Crossbuttock), and giving the back (Buttock and Flying Mare). Also a very popular strategy was Kreuzsprunges, or jump over cross, which basically was a Flying Horse.

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There were two styles of Ringen in the Middle Ages:

1. Ganzer Ringkampf (Full Wrestling), up and down freestyle. In that style wrestlers would close and quickly go down together. On the ground, the battle for the dominant uppermost position would occur. Ground wrestling was commonly known as the Liegekampf (lying down fight) or Löwenkampf (lion fight). The winner had to make his opponent give in any resistance by placing him flat on his back and keeping him in an immovable position (Unterhalten, to hold underneath). The defeat had to be verbally admitted.

2. Halber Ringkampf (Half Wrestling, or Wrestle for a Throw), standing freestyle. In that style to win the match the wrestler had to give his opponent a flying fall on his back.

During the Middle Ages similar styles were practiced in Netherlands and Flanders where they were known as Ondergooi and Neergooi respectively.

The most common wrestling techniques of Medieval German freestyle were:

Arm-Ringen (use of arms and hands for throwing),

Leib-Ringen (use of body/torso strength for throwing),

Hüft-Ringen (use of hip for throwing),

Haken-Ringen (Hooking, use of legs and feet for throwing) or Häkeln (Crochet Technique).

Gabel (the fork, various crotch-holds and lifts),

Rigel (the foot, leg, various leg and foot holds and lifts).

The mastery in that wrestling technique was achieved by exercising the German folk equal fixed hold standing wrestling game called the Kragen-ringen (collar-wrestling). In that game wrestlers took holds of each other by the collars and proceeded after the sign of the referee trying to take their opponent down from that hold. Usually any part of the person’s body above the knee down constituted the fall, but the most prestigious victory was achieved when the opponent was thrown down flat on his back. Just like in any wrestling at Arms’ Length style the art of hooking legs and tripping was a key skill in the Kragen-ringen.

Most of the falls in the Ringen were given by using the Arm and Leib Ringen techniques (advantageous catch-hold, lift and throw).

1

GGS Wrestling Holds and Throws

Current status:

During the 1800s, the Turnvereins Era, the Medieval German Ringen was revived by the German Gymnastic Society (GGS) which popularized it all around the world. The GGS style of Ringen was first introduced by the forefathers of modern gymnastics, German enthusiasts Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths (1759-1839) and Dr. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778-1852). The former was author of the famous “Gymnastics for Youth” (1793) and the latter was founder of gymnasia in Berlin (1811) and organizer of large gymnastic gatherings.

According to the Rules of German freestyle wrestling as they appeared in the 1793 book by J. GutsMuths called “Gymnastics for Youth” there were two kinds of Ringen, the Complete Wrestle and the Repeated Wrestle. In the style called Complete Wrestle, the competitors stood a few steps apart from each other and after a signal the wrestling match would begin with a mere play with the hands in order to obtain the most advantageous hold. This was done to prevent wrestlers from rushing on each other with too much violence. The wrestlers were allowed to seize each other fairly round the body or by the limbs (above and under the waist), the head and neck were to be spared as much as possible, and blows of any kind were strictly prohibited. According to the old German tradition one was considered defeated when he is thrown down flat on his back and kept from rising in that immovable position for the previously agreed amount of time so he cannot gain the uppermost position (pinning fall), or until he himself verbally admits his defeat and gives in any resistance (cries, enough!) Those matches were one fall affairs. In the style called Repeated Wrestle the victory was gained by giving the adversary two back falls, and it wasn’t necessary to keep him on the ground, the thrower quits his opponent the moment he is down on his back (quick flying fall). The wrestler who has thrown his opponent without falling himself or touching the ground with his hand or knee was an immediate victor. In that style generally the wrestler was considered defeated if after being thrown he landed on his back, but sometimes it was enough if any part of the trunk of his body (back, belly, sides) touches the ground. Those matches were contested usually for 2 of 3 and sometimes for 3 of 5 back falls.

In England and in the United States the GGS Ringen (Turners Catch) was known as a loose wrestling style or catch-as-catch-can. The GGS loose wrestling style influenced the evolution of British and American amateur freestyle wrestling. In 1866, the National Olympian Association (NOA) had a Great Gymnastic Gathering at Crystal Palace, London. Wrestling was represented by two styles, the Cumberland and Westmorland Back-hold and the Catch-as-catch-can as it was practiced by the athletes of GGS. In 1867, the wrestling manuals were issued by GGS. The catch portion of the manual was presented by Mr. Schweizer, GGS Catch wrestling instructor. An evolved variation of GGS Catch was later adopted by the amateurs of America (1880s), the National Sporting Club of London (1890s), the National Amateur Wrestling Association of Great Britain (1904), and then was finally exposed worldwide at the Olympics in St. Louis (1904) and London (1908).

Sources of information :

This article is based on “The Story of Catch” (2019), by Ruslan C Pashayev.

Ringo (Poland)

Name of sport (game): Ringo
Name in native language: Ringo
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Poland; the other countries have similar games, like Ring tennis (or Tennikoit) in Germany

History:

Ringo is a sport with similar equivalents in the other countries, such as German Ring tennis or English deck tennis, played on boards of the ships, which were enjoyed during the long-lasting cruises at the beginning of the 20th century.
In Poland, Polish Ringo dates back to the 1950s. Initially, it was a part of a training of Polish fencer – Włodzimierz Strzyżewski.
In 1968, this sport was presented during the Olympic Games in Mexico as Polish Ringo (the name is derived from an English word: “ring”).

Description:

Ringo consists in throwing a rubber ring over a tape, rope, string or net so that it falls onto the opponent’s field. This ring can be bought cheaply in many stores. You can also use other items to play at home or in the garden, e.g. tennis balls or even boxes, rolled-up newspapers etc.

ringo equipment
You hang a string, net, rope or net at a height depending on the age and the height of the players. You can play one-to-one or in teams of two or three participants each side (or even bigger).
In one-to-one version, one player starts the game with a serve from behind the end line – he or she has to throw the ring over a net or a tape with one hand to the other half of the pitch. The opponent tries to catch it (also with one hand) and flip it again with the same hand over the string/net/tape.
Players only move around the pitch without a ring in their hands. When they catch it, they must stop and flip the ring. When the ring hits the ground on the opponent’s field of play, the game is interrupted and the team which managed to force its counterpart not to catch the ring, gets a point.
If the ring flies under the net or falls to the ground off the pitch, the team which committed this mistake, loses a point.
In team version, you play with one ring in teams of 2 or 3 participants a side or you can try a more professional type of ringo – playing with two rings, flying simultaneously!

Wymiary boiska do gry w ringo

Current status:

Polish Ringo is a quite popular sport in Poland. There is even the Polish Association of Ringo and International Ringo Federation (based in Poland), which organizes many, regular competitions in Ringo at various levels in Poland and abroad, including World Championships in this sport.
Ringo is played recreationally in many places in the entire country. It is a simple and very accessible game for everyone.
Ringo was also presented during the important, international sport and cultural events, including World and European Sport for All Games, European Week of Sport, Olympic Games and the others.

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Ringo is a dynamic and attractive game for everyone – very simple and easy to organize. You can play it both outdoors and indoors, one-to-one, in pairs or in bigger teams. You can organize recreational games almost everywhere. You only need a string, a tape or something else to hang and a small, rubber ring (ringo) that is cheap and accessible to buy in many stores.
It has been proven that this sport has a very positive effect on widely understood health and physical fitness of children and adults. Besides, it is a joyful game that simply gives a lot of fun to all its players.

Contacts:

Bartosz Prabucki, PhD,
Expert of traditional sports, Institute for the Development of Sport and Education (IRSiE)
www.inspirowanysportem.pl 

Polish Association of Ringo
01 - 493 Warszawa
ul. Wrocławska 16 m 39
Webside: http://www.ringo.org.pl/
Fb: https://www.facebook.com/ringo.poland
+48 226388715,
602778176
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Polskie Towarzystwo Ringo logo

International Ringo Federation
Webside: http://irf.ringo.org.pl/
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
International Ringo Federation

Gallery:

Documents:

pdfringo_przepisy.pdf

pdfringo-_uproszczony_przepis_gry.pdf

pdfringo_przepisy.pdf

Rintapaîni (Finland)

Name of sport (game): Rintapaîni
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Finland

Ristynės (Lithuania)

Name of sport (game): Ristynės
Name in native language: Ristynės
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Lithuania

Sources of information :

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pZBSVPPnew&feature=share&fbclid=IwAR04i07mRErErnQ7469cnJYDw0igt0IsMeGsm8z8FGwW0VgKNTITmq_I0pY 

Ritpaïni (Finland)

Name of sport (game): Ritpaïni
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Finland

Contact

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Fundacja IRSiE

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Warsaw, 00-116

traditionalsports@sportinstytut.pl

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