Jildaoba (Georgia)

Name of sport (game): Jildaoba
Name in native language: Jildaoba
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):


Jogo da péla (Portugal)

Name of sport (game): Jogo da péla
Name in native language: Jogo da péla
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):


Jogo do Arco (Portugal)

Name of sport (game): Jogo do Arco
Name in native language: Jogo do Arco

Jogo do Pau (Portugal)

Name of sport (game): Jogo do Pau
Name in native language: Jogo do Pau
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Jogo do Pau is practised in Portugal, Azores and Madeira (Portugal) and outside Portugal. There are some jogo do pau study groups around the world (Australia, USA, Sweden, Belgium), but they all started in the 21st century or really late 20th century.


In a variety of different societies, treating the sword as a weapon has been a privilege of the royals and warriors. Common people did not have access to such weaponry, so they had to find some alternative ways, such as hand-to-hand combat or using common tools. One of such disciplines is a well-known martial art karate (“with bare hands” from Japanese) developed in Okinawa; or in a similar time frame Kobudo, fighting style using only a sickle. There are a lot more styles that use similar objects or tools, such as sticks, clappers, etc. These were the weapons used by common farmers or fishermen when confronted with the samurais equipped with katanas or other arms. In Portugal, local people developed a fighting style using a staff, which they could buy everywhere. The style became known as Jogo do Pau, which mean game, but in this context, the meaning is closer to “technical skills” or “wielding”.
In the XX century, Jogo do Pau has still been popular throughout whole Portugal, especially in the north during various festivals and events. The duels could take the form of one against one clashes or one against many. The participants from the north were called “puxadores” while the participants who travelled from one event to another winning every match in order to prove their worth were called “varredores de feiras”. Master Monteiro, originating in Fafe region, said that when his father had been young, there were two villages, which took part in the Sunday Mass in the same chapel. It was a part of the tradition for everyone to hold their staffs above their heads for everyone to see while kneeling during the Mass. After the ceremony, staffs were used for fighting, which has often happened after trivial disputes between the young members of two villages. Such skirmishes were solved with the use of the staff but were not deprived of rules. They had to honour the ethic code, which prohibited fighting with a laying man or a man without his staff.
In Lisbon, since XIX century, Jogo do Pau has been practised in an unconventional way, developed on the streets of the capital city or clubs such as Ateneu Comercial de Lisboa or Real Gymnasium, where Jogo do Pau is still being practised. Two great schools were established, their techniques, history and social principles varied: Escola do Norte and Escola de Lisboa (also practised in Ribatejo and Extremadura). The latter one developed a series of innovative techniques and was less focused on the confrontation with an opponent.
There were a number of Jogo do Pau masters in different regions of Portugal, including António Nunes Caçador, Frederico Hopffer, Júlio Hopffer, Joaquim Baú, Calado Campos, Chula, Custódio Neves, Pedro Ferreira, Elias Gameiro, Nuno Russo or Manuel Monteiro. Master Pedro Ferreira (March 26th, 1915 – September 24th, 1996) became very important person for the technical development and history of Jogo do Pau, by fusing Escola do Norte and Escola de Lisboa. A lot of contemporary teachers had been his students in the past. He gave Jogo do Pau the image of the art that is being practised one’s whole life and has been considered to be one of the greatest masters of Jogo do Pau.


Jogo do Pau are 3 training exercises: “Sarilhos”, “Formas” and “Séries”. These three techniques are very similar to the one used in a majority of oriental martial arts called “Kata”, which is a simulation of movement sequences used in imaginary fight. A lot of beginners confuse these two training approaches since the division of exercises in Jogo do Pau can be easily overlooked since they are taught simultaneously.
1) Sarilhos – The previously determined sequence of defence movements used in a specific situations. The exercises not only improve the trainee’s fighting techniques but also their endurance and body coordination. The advantage of this training method is being able to do it alone.
2) Formas – Sequence of attack and defence movements mixed together designed for fighting multiple opponents at once. Formas are very often trained in coordinated groups, which creates a visually pleasing effect and are used for demonstrations.
3) Séries – It was part of the traditional training of the old masters, which combines two of the previous exercises. It is the most complex form of Jogo do Pau training and requires coordination and experience, hence it was usually practised one to one (master to a student). These days, the most common approach is a classroom model (master to several students), but it is possible to practise it one to one.
Jogo do Pau consists in a lot more aspects, like traditional martial art staff fighting, 1 to 1 combat, combat against multiple opponents and the more recent approach of sports competition, Still, most of the training is done in its traditional form wood staffs and no protections, with the objective of creating Combat ready athletes.
Esgrima Lusitana Cascais is now the base of the Escola do Santo Condestável technique (the most combat effectiveness oriented, and the one that is promoting the sport competition option, with several schools, in Portugal and outside).

Current status:

Nowadays Jogo do Pau is not as popular as it used to be in the past. Since 1930s, Jogo do Pau started to diminish in popularity, due to variety of different reasons, such as police prohibition of staff use in order to avoid serious injuries or even casualties as well as the spread of firearms which made a time consuming and difficult to master technique less beneficial. Despite all these reasons, Jogo do Pau is still being practised today, thanks to the groups such as Esgrima Lusitana Cascais – Jogo do Pau Association.


Associação Desportiva e Cultural do Jogo do Pau Português
Rua de Rebordãos nº 1671 - Rebordões - Infesta
4890-397 Celorico de Basto

associaciao cultural


Associação Jogo do Pau Cascais - Stafffighters
Cascais, Portugal
Website Portuguese:
Website International:
Website e-learning:
Website store:
Fb Portuguese:
Fb International:
Fb Brasil:
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Jogo do pau cascais logo

Grupo de Jogo do Pau de Bucos

grupo de Jogo do Pau de Bucos


Esgrima Lusitana Lisboa – Jogo do Pau Português

esgrima lusitana lisboa

Grupo de Jogo do pau de Abadim

Sources of information :

History -
Video -
Video -
Documentary -
Techniques -
Jogo do Pau Português -

António Nunes Caçador, Jogo do Pau (Esgrima Nacional), Lisboa 1963 (available:
Ernesto Veiga De Oliveira, O Jogo do Pau em Portugal, no suplemento da Revista da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, Geographica n.º 32- ano VIII- outubro 1972.
Frederico Hopffer, Duas Palavras sobre o Jogo do Pau, Lisboa 1924.
Guia De Portugal-IV- Entre Douro e Minho, II Minho.
Joaquim António Ferreira (da Cidade de Guimarães), A Arte do Jogo do Pau, Porto 1886.
J. Leite De Vasconcelos, Tentame de Sistematização, volume VI, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional- Casa da Moeda- 1975.
Marcello Caetano, Ordalios Prova Testemunhal e Documental, em História do Direito Português (1140-1495), Verbo.
«O Pauladas», nº 00, n.º 1 e N.º 2/3, Boletins Informativos da A.P.J.P.
Rui Simões, Jogo do Pau, do Boletim Informativo 00 A.E.P./A.P.J.P.
Xanquin Lourenzo Fernandes, O Varapau, em Cultura e Arte, página cultural de «O Comércio do Porto», ano VIII. n.º 8, 10 III 1959, pp. 5-6.
Helder João Vieira Valente, O jogo do pau Português, Associação Algarvia do Jogo do Pau Português Portimão, 1993
Luis Preto, Jogo do Pau: The ancient art & modern science of Portuguese stick fighting, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013
Luis Preto, Staff, baton & longsword combat series: Functional parrying skill
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012
Paulo Lopes, "O Jogo do Pau Português, A Arte Marcial Portuguesa, uma tradição com séculos de prática". Independent Publishing, 2020
Manuel Monteiro and Alvaro Santos Pato, "Manual Pau-Luta", Independent Publishing, 2019


Joutes Languedociennes (France)

Name of sport (game): Joutes languedociennes, joutes nautiques
Name in native language: Joutes languedociennes
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

France, villes de l’Hérault et une ville du Gard.
Béziers, Agde, Marseillan, Mèze, Balaruc, Frontignan, Sète, Palavas, Le Grau-du-Roi.


The history of the practice of jousting seems very old. Some representations attest to this as early as 2780 B.C. in the former Egyptian Empire. At this time, it is not a question of a playful or sporting practice, rather of quarrels settling on the water. Over time, the practice is found in Greece and then in Sicily; it is strongly diffused as a sport or show game under the Roman Empire (46 BC). Although they were certainly practiced, the nautical jousts reappear in the writings and representations only in the twelfth century after J-C, especially in Lyon in 1177. Nautical jousts flourished in the 16th century. At that time, they took place during performances in honour of dignitaries (king, queen, member of the court) or at major events, and were organized in the form of tournaments. Thus, the archives mention nautical joust tournaments on April 13, 1507 in Lyon, in honour of Queen Anne of Brittany, in 1536 in honour of Francis I and in 1548, for Henri II and Catherine de Medici. On September 13, 1782, in Lyon, a tournament of jousts broke a record of attendance (about 100,000 people attending).
In a few centuries, nautical jousts have become popular festivals very attractive. Nautical jousting was officially recognized as a sport in March 1960. Four years later, on November 22, the French Federation of Joute et Sauvetage Nautique (FFJSN) was born, the one recognized today since its approval in April 1971 by the Secretariat of Youth and Sports. The FFJSN currently has more than 81 joust companies, approximately 40 located along the Rhône.These companies are distinguished in four leagues: Ligue Languedoc, Ligue Nord de Loire Picardie, Ligue Rhône Alpes, Ligue Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur. This division is due to different methods of practicing nautical jousting, of which there are six: Provençal method, Languedoc method, Parisian method, Lyonnaise and Girondine method, Strasbourg method.


Two heavy boats, one red and the other blue, were propelled by eight to ten oarsmen and guided by two coxswains, the "helmsmen".
The gamers are positioned on a platform about three metres from the water at the end of each boat. This platform bears the name of tinaine. On the lower part of the tinaine, stand the jousts of the next duels.
The two boats then face each other, propelling each other until the final impact. At the time of the assault, the two boats graze on the right to allow the jousts to carry out "the pass". Equipped with their spear and a bulwark, the aim of the gamer is to bring down his opponent in the water. The winner is the one who stays in place on the tintaine after the pass. A player in position is slit-forward. It is a joust in force, especially as the gamer carries a heavy bulwark (shield) 70 cm high for 40 cm wide and a lance of 2.80 m with the other hand. Before 1920, the bulwarks were larger (20 cm larger) and heavier. A completely white outfit is mandatory for all gamers, as well as the wearing of socks, also white.
Music is omnipresent on the occasion of the Languedoc jousts. A pena is always in charge of punctuating the exploits of the gamers, while the rowers are entitled to two onboard musicians, a traditional Languedoc haubois and a drum (called tambornet), seated at the bow of each boat. They set the pace for the rowers.

Current status:

The Languedoc jousts have 17 societies of Jousts : L'Amicale des Pêcheurs Sète-Môle, L'Association des Jouteurs Biterrois, L'Avenir des Jouteurs Sétois, La Lance Sportive Sétoise, La Nouvelle Lance Mézoise, Le Pavois Agathois, La Jeune Lance Graulenne, La Jeune Lance Sétoise, La Jeune Lance Sportive Mézoise, La Société des Jouteurs Balarucois, La Société des Jouteurs Frontignanais, La Société des Jouteurs Sétois, La Lance Amicale Sétoise, La Lance Olympique Marseillanaise, La Lance Sportive Palavasienne, L'Amicale des Jouteurs de la Pointe-Short and The Society of Agathois Gamers.

championnatfrance 2019 web 190911133343 thumbnail 4

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

The Languedoc method is one of five nautical joust variants recognized by the French Federation of Jousting and Nautical Life1.
This practice has been included in the Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France since 2012.
The queen event is the famous Grand Prix de la Saint-Louis in Sète around August 25 (the last Monday of August) (since 1743), but a points classification on the season (since 1962), a French championship (since 1927) and a Coupe de France (since 1963) also exist in four weight and age categories: Heavy, Medium, Senior and Junior.


Fédération Française de Joutes et Sauvetage Nautique  
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Ligue Joutes Languedociennes 

Sources of information :

Books, articles:

Patrick Bertonèche, 1998, Joutes nautiques en France, Douarnenez, éd. le Chasse-Marée/Armen.
Jérôme Pruneau, 1998, « La sportivisation en marche dans les joutes languedociennes », in Bulletin de la Société d’Etudes Historiques et Scientifiques de Sète et sa Région, Frontignan : Soulié Imprimeur, 205-216.
Jérôme Pruneau & Charles Pigeassou, 1999, « La sportivisation dans les joutes languedociennes : de nouveaux repères », in L’Histoire du sport, l’histoire des sportifs, Paris, L’Harmattan, 385-399.
Jérôme Pruneau et Charles Pigeassou, 1999, « La sociabilité dans les sociétés de joutes languedociennes : phénoménologie du lien social », in L’Histoire du sport, l’histoire des sportifs, Paris : L’Harmattan, 373-384.
Jérôme Pruneau, 1998, « La sportivisation en marche dans les joutes languedociennes », in Bulletin de la Société d’Etudes Historiques et Scientifiques de Sète et sa Région, Frontignan : Soulié Imprimeur, 205-216.
Jérôme Pruneau, 1998, « Entre management théorique et application pratique : quelle place pour le management dans les organisations sportives traditionnelles ? L’exemple des joutes languedociennes », in Actes de colloque Premier Congrès de la Société Française de Management du Sport, Montpellier, 209-217.
Jérôme Pruneau et Charles Pigeassou, 1999, « Regards critiques sur les rites et rituels dans la joute languedocienne : tensions et médiation entre les différentes formes de caractérisation et d’interprétation des rites », in Corps et Culture rites et rituels dans le sport, 4, 64-86.
Jérôme Pruneau et Charles Pigeassou , 1998, « Regards sociologiques sur la dynamique du lien social dans les sociétés de joutes languedociennes », in Corps et Culture sport et lien social, 3, 173-190.
Jérôme Pruneau, 2000, « Les rites et rituels dans la joute languedocienne : une pierre angulaire entre tradition et modernité », in Sport et identité, Paris : L’Harmattan, 225-231.
Jérôme Pruneau, 2000, « Les joutes languedociennes », in Ethnosud, bulletin de liaison de l’A.R.C.E., n°16 janvier-mars.
Jérôme Pruneau, 1999-2000-2001, « De l’ancrage culturel a l’empreinte sportive : évolution du processus identitaire dans la joute languedocienne », in Revue Héraultaise, 30/31/32, 277-285.
Jérôme Pruneau, Les Joutes Languedociennes – Ethnologie d’un « sport traditionnel », Paris, L’Harmattan, coll. Espaces et temps du sport, 2003.
Jérôme Pruneau, « Le temps métissé des joutes languedociennes : un « entre-deux » révélateur » in Corps et Cultures, n° 6/7, 2004.
Jérôme Pruneau et Charles Pigeassou, 2004, « Du héros mythique au champion en titre : évolution et transformation du processus d’identification dans l’histoire des joutes languedociennes », in Delaplace J. M., Villaret S. et Chameyrat W., (Dir). Sport et Nature dans l’histoire – Sport and Nature in History – Sport und Natur im historischen, Academia Verlag, 33-43.
Jérôme Pruneau, 2009, « Les joutes nautiques en Languedoc-Roussillon. Trajectoire d’un jeu traditionnel, devenu « sport traditionnel »», revue des jeux Bretons.
Jérôme Pruneau, 2010. “Joutes nautiques”, in Le Dictionnaire culturel du sport sous la direction de Michael Attali et Jean St Martin, Paris : Armand Colin, 84-85
Jérôme Sagnard et Jean-Claude Caira, Les Joutes en France: l’âge d’or (1880-1920), Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire, éditions Alan Sutton, Mémoire du sport, 2008, 192 p.




Photos: Guillaume Lanouhe (Association Brev’Art) 














Juego del chito (Spain)

Name of sport (game): Juego del chito
Name in native language: Juego del chito (tuta, tángana, tango, tanga, tanguilla)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Spain (eg. Villaviciosa de Odon - Madrid)
The denomination tanguilla is the one commonly used in the town of Palazuelos and, in general, in the mountains of the north of the province of Guadalajara and nearby areas of Segovia and Soria.


The players, usually groups of 6 to 10 people, take turns throwing the discs with the aim of hitting and knocking down the tango. Two trial rolls are usually made and then, as a general rule, twelve rounds of a roll in which the player who knocks down the tango scores.
It was usual to play tango betting small amounts of money, a few years ago the blond pesetas used to be used and now the amounts do not usually exceed the euro. In these cases, all the players agree on an amount per spin. The coins wagered are placed on the tango. When a player knocks down the tango he wins those coins that are closer to his puck than to the tango, he collects those coins and the rest are placed back on the tango to continue the round.

The game requires three elements: the players, the yews and the tanguilla itself.
The tanguilla is a cylinder about 18 or 20 centimeters long and 3 or 4 centimeters in diameter, with perfectly smooth bases.
The yews are metal disks between 8 or 10 centimeters in diameter and about 4 or 6 millimeters thick. The dimensions and composition determine its weight, an important factor in the game. In certain localities, yew trees are also called "tangones" or "chocones".

Current status:


Sources of information :

El deporte del chito, Asoc. Amigos del Chito de Villaviciosa de Odón, Asoc. Amigos del Chito de Villaviciosa de Odón, Año: 1989.



Source of photos used in this article and gallery:





Kamena s ramena (Serbia)

Name of sport (game): Kamena s ramena
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):


Sources of information :



Kapela (Poland)

Name of sport (game): Kapela, eng. Chapel
Name in native language: Kapela
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Poland (Pomerania region, Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), occasionally in other places and countries, e.g. in China.

kapela4 w Chinach


The name of this game comes from an Italian word capella (Eng: the Chapel).
In the past, shepherds used to play it at Kociewie (Pomerania region at the seaside in northern Poland). They had many field stones in this area, which they were using to play.
Over time, this game was forgotten but in the recent decades it has been reactivated in some villages of Kociewie region by local authorities. Then, it was spread, among others, to Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) voivodeship where it was further popularized.


Kapela consists in playing a kind of a duel between two players. One person, acting as a so-called Kapelamaster, stands in the middle of the field with a hat / a cup on his/her head (you can use also e.g. bean bags instead of hats) and puts a small construction of stones (one on another) next to him or her. It resembles a chapel – hence the name of the game.
Around the Kapelamaster, there are usually 8 players (their number can of course be changed) who form a circle. Each of them has a wooden ball in his hand (it was a stone in the past).
One of these players starts the game by throwing or rolling the ball towards the stone chapel so that it falls over. If he or she succeeds, he/she runs for the ball and returns with it (the same path) to his/her place.
At the same time, the task of Kapelamaster is to rebuild the chapel and then to throw a cap / a hat (from his/her head) at the player running after the ball. If he hits him/her, before he/she returns with the ball to his/her place, the hit person becomes the new Kapelamaster. If Kapelamaster misses or fails to rebuild the chapel (or the stones fall during the game), Kapelamaster remains in his/her place and another player from the circle tries to knock down the stone chapel, by throwing or rolling his/her ball.
There are basically no winners or losers in this game. After each turn, the Kapelamaster either changes and becomes one of the players from the circle or not and he or she continues to play his/her role until he/she successfully rebuilds the chapel and hits someone with a hat. You can play until the game gets bored or spontaneously come up with another way to end it.


Current status:

Kapela is still vivid. However, it is played only occasionally in some villages, communes or towns. In Osieczna commune (Kociewie region, Pomerania) there is an event called World Championships in Kapela (here a plural form of “Kapele” is used), played every year since 2000. In Greater Poland region, kapela is presented and played also only occasionally, for instance during practical classes for children and adults (organized, among others, by the author of this article).
This sport has also been shown in many places in Poland and abroad, among others at the World Sport for All Games in Lithuania (2012), at the First European Week of Sport in Belgium (2015) and at the I European Sport for All Games in the Netherlands (2018).
It has also reached China where it was introduced to the activities of small children by Zhu Qian, after he had read about it on the blog:

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Kapela is a cheerful, traditional game, very good for the whole families. It gives a lot of joy from the duel – a running competition between the Kapelamaster and the consecutive players from the circle.
It is a simple, joyful, running game, derived from Polish pastoral traditions and now returning as an attractive physical activity for children, adults, whole families, the elderly and everyone interested.


Bartosz Prabucki, PhD,
Expert of traditional sports, Institute for the Development of Sport and Education (IRSiE)

Sources of information :




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