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"Flower man way," or "The way of the flowering manhood." A broad based and complex Korean martial discipline that combines body movements with kicks, blocks and strikes, throws, joint manipulations, choking and submission techniques, ki training, weapons and the healing arts. The original art is said to have been created over 1800 years ago by a Buddhist priest, Won Kwang Bopsa. He was asked to instruct members of the royal family of Silla (one of three kingdoms that divided the area that is now Korea) in a variety of subjects, and his students went on to become warriors, statesmen and leaders known collectively as the hwarang. Later, during periods of political turmoil, training continued in secret within Buddhist monasteries and was preserved. In the modern era, two brothers, Joo Bang Lee and Joo Sang Lee, trained under the 57th successor of the system, the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa, and they were given permission to teach publicly in 1960. Since then the art has spread under the direction of the World Hwarang-do Association.