Vovinam Viêt-vo-Dao (Vietnam)

Name of sport (game): Vovinam
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):



Vovinam is a genuine Vietnamese Martial Art (“Vo” means “Martial Arts”; “Vinam” stands for “Vietnam”).
By far Vovinam is Vietnam’s most popular traditional form of Martial Arts. The Martial Art of Vovinam was founded by Master Nguyen Loc in 1938. He researched other Martial Arts with the intention to combine specific aspects from each into one style that would be suitable to the physique of the Vietnamese people: thin, but fast, flexible and enduring.
Since 1964, the title “Viet Vo Dao” has been added, to become “Vovinam – Viet Vo Dao”. Viet Vo Dao stands for the philosophy on which Vietnamese Martial Arts leans, a/o the principle of Yin and Yang, or soft and hard techniques. In 1939, the first public demonstration of Vovinam took place in Ha Noi; subsequently clubs were established in all regions of northern and central Vietnam. Master Le Sang - successor of Master Nguyen Loc - organized a meeting with southern masters in Saigon with the view of spreading Vietnamese martial arts worldwide. In 1973 the “French Vovinam - Viet Vo Dao Federation” was established, gradually evolving into the “International Vovinam - Viet Vo Dao Federation”, which finally became the “Vietnamese Martial Arts World Federation”.


Along with martial arts philosophies and health maintenance techniques, Vovinam – Viet Vo Dao (VVVD) provides a system of martial arts techniques that encompasses various forms of self-defence that are very effective in real life combat. The goals of VVVD are to:
i) Preserve and develop the martial arts of Vietnam, applying “soft and hard core-development”;
ii) Research and innovate new martial arts’ techniques to improve VVVD technical resources;
iii) Train students on Strength, Techniques, and Philosophy to develop a solid body, strong endurance against obstacles and disease (Strength), self-defence and just causes (Techniques), and a rational mind, invincible will and gallant character (Philosophy). Students will be living in a self-disciplined and forgiving way and become model citizens, serving oneselves, one’s family, one’s state, and mankind.
Practitioners wear blue uniforms and earn belts just as in other traditional martial arts. A student begins with a light blue belt, same colour as the uniform. When VVVD student pass their first exam, the belts are changed into a dark blue colour, which stands for hope - the hope of being successful in learning VVVD. Upon positively completing the following 3 exams, yellow stripes are added to the blue belt. The 3rd yellow stripe is followed by the yellow belt: the student has reached instructor's level.
Higher levels include the red and white belts; the red stands for blood and fire, symbolizing a fighting spirit. Finally, white stands for infiniteness and bones, symbols of the depth of the spirit. The white belt designates the master to the absolute mastery of Vovinam - Viet Vo Dao.
It’s a bit ironic that Vovinam - Viet Vo Dao is getting popular in Europe, especially in France, since the founder developed this martial arts as a means to train Vietnamese youth against French colonialism. However, today the sport is also put into effect in the U.S., Canada, Australia, Belgium, Switzerland and other countries.

Current status:


Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

Nowadays, VVVD is very popular in Viet Nam, from big cities to small villages. It’s cheap to register for a class anywhere. Students can practice with and without weapons while in combat or in daily life. It includes training of the body as well as the mind - the fighting spirit, courage, tenacity, fairness, modesty, and tolerance. Above all, the morality involved in VVVD training and the way it teaches how to apply techniques shape the students’ character.


World Vovinam Federation - WVVF -



Wooden shoes race (China)

Name of sport (game): Wooden shoes race
Name in native language: 板鞋竞速(Ban Xie Jing Su)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Guangxi, China


This sport was invented in 1500s, during Ming Dynasty. It was originally used to train soldiers to improve their cooperation in Guangxi. Then it becomes popular around other parts of China as an entertainment activity.


This sport usually covers several pairs of wooden shoes/long ski boards. Each pair of wooden shoes is 100 cm in length, 9 cm in width and 3 cm in thickness. It has velcro or nylon tapes for fastening athletes’ feet on it.

Wooden Shoe Racing is usually played in three forms: speed contest / Relay Race/obstacle race


(For Speed Contest)
1. Speed Contest is usually played in a stadium. It uses normal athletic track.
2. Three players form a team and get ready for race.
3. On “Ready, set, go” mark, athletes must compete a distance of racing(60m or 100m)as fast as possible.
4. The first team crossing finishing line wins.
5. If the team falls down or their feet leave wooden shoes during the race, they must stop and make their feet attach to nylon tapes on wooden shoes again. Only then could they complete the rest of the race.
6. They must keep in their own race track during the race.
7. False start, running on other teams’ track or someone’s feet without keeping touching wooden shoes during race will cause an invalid result.

(For Relay Race)
Rules similar to speed race, but distance of race is longer(200 m) and each team usually has two or groups for relay race.

(For obstacle race)
Rules similar to speed race, but more interesting because players have to finish several tasks while they are running on wooden shoes. For example, bypassing cones or stepping over balloons, etc.

Current status:

Practiced sport. It is also a formal event of Traditional Sports Games For Ethnic Groups in China.

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

It improves cooperation, agility and determination of players.


Yak riding (Central Asia)

Name of sport (game): Yak riding
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Central Asia

Sources of information :



Source of photos used in this article and gallery:


Wushu (China)


International Wushu Federation
Web: Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Lausanne | Tel: +41 21 312 2583 | Fax: +41 21 312 2587
Avenue de Rhodanie 58, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland

Beijing | Tel: +86 10 87774492 | Fax: +86 10 5962 0989
9 Huaweili, Chaoyang District, 100021 Beijing, China

logo IWUF


Yoga (India)

Name of sport (game): Yoga

Yabusame (Japan)

Name of sport (game): Yabusame
Name in native language: 流鏑馬 (Japanese)
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

This sport discipline is practiced in Japan. Performances of it are occasionally shown in other countries.


The roots of this sport date back to prehistory. It was established in Jōmon era. According to historians, year 12,000 BCE was the beginning and year 300 BCE was the ending of the era. The shape of the bow, that is used nowadays, was created during Yayoi era (300 BCE – 300 CE).
Until the 4th century archers were moving on foot, then they started horseback riding. After few hundred years later samurais, who were at most 10% of Japanese population, began dueling in a way similar to today’s Yabusame – each of the samurai rode closer to the other rider in order to shoot him with at least three arrows.
At the end of the 12th century in Japan’s history began another important period for Yabusame. Kamakura era, apart from socio-political transformations closely related to the emerging feudalism and reducing emperor’s role to ceremonial functions, also began the tradition of demonstrating archery techniques on a horse before the government. It was also an exercise preparing for a possible war.
Later, this sport discipline lost its popularity. It experienced a big reform only in the year 1724. It was then that Ogasawara Heibei Tsuneharu led by Shogun Yoshimuna developed a new Yabusame style: combining the traditions and textbooks of both schools of this sport. Both schools were created in the 9th and 12th centuries.
What is interesting, this discipline was also used for ritual purposes. It was demonstrated during prayers for healing, repelling evil, or the birth of children.
After the abdication of the last ruler of the Tokugawa Shogunate (1867) and the restoration of the Empire, the sport lost its popularity once more. It was only after the Second World War that Yabusame returned and now is an essential element of the Japanese tradition.


Archers are dressed in traditional costumes from the Kamakura period – a time during which this sport was actually created. The sport begins with a ritual prayer. The leader of the game places an arrow on the altar in order to drive away evil spirits, after short introductory ceremonies. He sacrifices that arrow to the gods. Later, one of the players stands in front of the main place of the celebration. He says a prayer intended to bring peace and abundant crops to the country.

Next, on the altar an olive branch is offered, and the leader of prayer gives one of the archers a folded arrow, which will be used again at the next ceremony. The speech ends with a few hits on the gong. After leaving the temple, players go on the game field.
A further prayer takes place before reaching the destination. The archer, being already on his horse, tightens the bowstring, directing the arrow towards the sky and then towards the ground, which reminds a deep bow. These activities are performed for peace and prosperity.
The procession, leaded by the person with the olive branch, passes along the track of the game, which is about 218 meters long (2 Japanese chōs). A fence is placed on both sides of it. On the left, about 5 meters from it, at a height of 2 meters, 3 square targets with a length of 35-50 centimeters, spaced apart at equal distances, are installed. These distances, however, can change, because they are dependent on Yabusame schools and rules applied in a given region.
First, there are several test runs, during which no shields are shot. Then the main game begins. Two people standing at the beginning and the end of the track give the signal to start by waving fans. While horses’ gallop, riders have to hit the targets. If they succeed, the player sitting at the target raises a white fan.
Over the time, the targets were changed to wheels with a diameter of 10 centimeters. Inside there is confetti that shoots from it after being hit by an arrow. Some Yabusame schools, however, do not have this kind of targets.
Here and there after shooting all three shields archers receive a white robe, which they put on their shoulders.


Current status:

Yabusame is not often practiced. Mostly only on chosen, festive days, as well as during visits of heads of state, or other high-ranking officials from other countries.
Yabusame performances take place in various districts of Japan on different days. However, in many places in this country this discipline is practiced on September 15, on Shintō festival Rei-sai, during which there is pleading for further prosperity from the gods. Rei-sai is one of the three most important celebrations throughout the year.
In addition, some regions demonstrate this discipline on Sunday, which is near April 15, May 4, May 5, August 1, September 9, November 3, and several other days.
There are no regular games. The position of the archer in Yabusame is a highly honorable matter. Although only men practiced this sport, for some time also women become archers – they compete with each other, presenting this discipline.


Ogasawara-ryū – school founded in 1187. (Japanese) (English)

The Japan Equestrian Archery Association (Japanese) (English)

20-43 Onarimachi, Kamakura, Kanagawa-ken
Japan, 248-0012

Sources of information :


Video: – report from men’s games. – report from women’s games.


Source of photos used in this article and gallery:




Yajia (Tibet)

Name of sport (game): Yajia
Name in native language: 押加 – from Tibetan – „Pulling like an elephant”
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Tibet Autonomous Region,China


More than 1000 years.


Yajia (Tibetan-style Tug-of-war) is a traditional game and sport of Tibet. It originated from Tibetan traditional spirit - to be more specific from Tibetan belief that elephant is a holy messenger from God. Therefore, Tibetans imitate actions of elephants which they think may bring them good luck.

1) Everybody can take a part in the event. Just before the match, contestants have to weigh themselves in order to compete with opponents of the same weight category. Only then match can be fair.
2) If it is held in an open space, a court with 9x2m is assembled. Two finishing lines are drawn 2.4 metres apart with the point zero in the middle of the court.

pole rywalizacji

3) A 6 metre-long ribbon is attached to the necks of two contestants, then put the way it could get through between their legs and its central mark (usually yellow ribbon or knot) could be positioned right above the point zero.
4) The target for both contestants is to drag the yellow ribbon across the finishing line. The first to do so wins a set. A match usually consists of three sets and whoever wins two of them wins the match.
5) If neither of contestants can drag the ribbon across the line in 90 seconds, the set is considered to be a draw. In such a situation contestants take a 2-minute break and try again.
6) If after 3 sets contestants are in draw situation, another set is added to the match. Time limit of the extra set is 60 seconds. During an extra set:
a) Contestants can win having the yellow ribbon dragged over the finish line
b) Wins the contestant who dragged the yellow ribbon closer to his finish line (if neither of them made it across)
7)Participants cannot pull the ribbon with their hands and have to stay in a kneeling position. Otherwise they can be penalized or even disqualified.

Current status:

Practiced sport

Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

It is an events of Minority Traditional Sport Games in China.
Beside Tibetans it is common for other minorities to take a part in Yajia.


Beijing Association For Traditional Sports of Nationalities
Address:He Ping Li Xi Jie,Dongcheng District,Beijing,China 100010
Tel:+86 10 64281673
Email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Zurkhaneh or Pahlevani (Iran)

Name of sport (game): Zurkhaneh, Zurxane, Zoorkhaneh, Zoorkhanei
Name in native language: varzesh-e pahlavāni (Persian: آیین پهلوانی و زورخانه‌ای‎, "heroic sport") or varzesh-e bāstāni (ورزش باستانی; varzeš-e bāstānī, "ancient sport")
Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

Part of Asia (Iran and adjacent lands, Azerbaijan)


Traditional Iranian wrestling (koshti) dates back to ancient Persia and was said to have been practiced by Rustam, mythological Iranian hero of the Shahnameh epic. While folk styles were practiced for sport by every ethnic group in various provinces, grappling for combat was considered the particular specialty of the zourkhāneh. The original purpose of these institutions was to train men as warriors and instill them with a sense of national pride in anticipation for the coming battles. The Mithrāic design and rituals of these academies bear testament to its Parthian origin (132 BC - 226 AD). The zourkhaneh system of training is what is now known as varzesh-e bastani, and its particular form of wrestling was called koshti pahlevani, after the Parthian word pahlevan meaning hero.
When the Arabs invaded Persia around 637 CE, the zourkhānehs (training places) served as secret meeting places where knights would train and keep alive a spirit of solidarity and patriotism. Invaders repeatedly targeted the houses of strength to discourage rebels, but new ones would always be organized in a different location. Following the spread of Shia Islam, and particularly after the development of Sufism in the 8th century, varzesh-e pahlavani absorbed philosophical and spiritual components from it. Religious hymns were incorporated into training, and the first Shi'ite imam Ali was adopted as the zourkhāneh patron.
Varzesh-e bastani was particularly popular in the 19th century, during the reign of the Qajar king Nāser al-Din Shāh Qājār (1848–1896). Every 21 March on Nowruz (the Iranian new year), competitions would be held in the shah's court, and the shah himself would present the champion with an armlet (bazoo-band). The sport declined following the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty in the 1920s and the subsequent modernisation campaigns of Reza Shah, who saw the sport as a relic of Qajarite ritual. Reza Shah's son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi took a different approach, emphasizing Iran's ancient Persian roots as an alternative to the heavily Islam-based identity of less developed nations in the Middle East. He attempted to revive the tradition and practiced it himself, and during his reign, the last national competitions were held.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 the tradition lost some of its popularity as the new regime discouraged anything tied to pre-Islamic paganism, which included the Gnostic and Mithraic chants and rituals of the zourkhāneh. This did not last, however, as the Islamic Republic eventually promoted varzesh-e bastani as a symbol of Iranian pride and culture. Today, varzesh-e pahlavāni is touted as the reason why Iranians are regular winners at international wrestling and weight-lifting events.
Zurkhaneh combines martial arts, calisthenics, strength training and music. Recognized by UNESCO as the world's longest-running form of such training, it fuses elements of pre-Islamic Persian culture (particularly Zoroastrianism, Mithraism and Gnosticism) with the spirituality of Shia Islam and sufism. Practiced in a domed structure called the zurkhāneh, training sessions consist mainly of ritual gymnastic movements and climax with the core of combat practice, a form of submission-grappling called koshti pahlavāni.

Bargirs kettlebells of Zorkhana Middle Ages Museum of History of Azerbaijan
Bargirs - kettlebells of Zorkhana. Middle Ages. Museum of History of Azerbaijan.



Both seniors and youth can take part in the competition in various weight categories, individually or in teams. Each team consists of 10 members:
- From 5 to 7 athletes,
- One “Master of Ceremonies”, who among others hits the gong,
- One trainer,
- One team captain.
In case when the team consists of more than 5 athletes, 0,1% of the 6th and 7th member’s score is going to be added to the final score of the team.
Individual competition consist of seven disciplines:
- Sang gereftan,
- Kabbadeh,
- Meel Bazy,
- Charkhidan Whirling: Charkz Teez – Charkz Charmani Charkh tak fer,
- Shelang takhteh
- Professional Meel giri.
Apart from the aforementioned disciplines, there are also wrestling competition being organized in four different weight categories( 60-70kg, 70-80kg, 80-90kg and >90kg).
To calculate total score gained by each team, the following rules are used:


Team competion

Individual competition


Team with 7 members

Team with 6 members

Team with 5 members

Sang gereftan, Kabbadeh, Meel giri, Charkh Teez - Charkh Chamani,  Meel Bazy

60-70 kg, 70-80 kg, 80-90 kg, >90 kg





10 points for each discipline

10 points for each weight category





9 points for each discipline

9 points for each weight category





8 points for each discipline

8 points for each weight category





7 points for each discipline

7 points for each weight category





6 points for each discipline

6 points for each weight category





5 points for each discipline

5 points for each weight category





4 points for each discipline

4 points for each weight category





3 points for each discipline

3 points for each weight category





2 points for each discipline

2 points for each weight category





1 point for each discipline

1 point for each weight category

Excercise zurkhaneh

Zurkhaneh equipments and terms in Iranian Varzesh-e-Bastani (source: :
1- Varzesh-e-Bastani (ancient sport): Is a comprehensive physical exercise session of 60 to 90 minutes, consisting of different kinds of physical activities appropriate for the age groups of 16 to 60-70 years old. These exercises were practiced under special customs and rituals established over hundreds of years. Each session of Varzesh-e-Bastani comprises: Warming up, main body of physical exercises, and warming down.
2- Zurkhaneh (home of strength): Is the very specially designed physical Structure, entangling, a myriad of philosophical, religious, cultural and educational Bases, together with the necessary technical facilities and apparatus for the cultivation of the body and the excellence of mind. The entrance door is low so that body of any walk of life at the time of entrance must of necessity bow in respect and enters this sacred place.
3- Bastanikar: Is everybody who practices Varzesh-e-Bastani and possesses a number of outstanding physical and spiritual traits and characteristics.
4- Pahlevan: Is the first champion among other bastanikars of a village, city, Province, country or the world of the time. This title was awarded only to athletes who were recognized as having had reached perfection in the qualities of both physical Prowess and moral virtue. The significance of Pahlevanship has been well resented in the Farsi language literature and culture. As an example, Ferdowsi, in his outstanding poetic book (Shahnameh), pictures Rostam, the Persian legendary Pahlevan, fighting heroically against depravity, vice, and sinful deeds and thoughts in the purest and most literary forms in the tenth century. Pahlevanship exists in daily life of the Zurkhaneh athletes, the most recognized tradition, Golrizan, happens when someone has a financial problem. In such a case after the Morshed bell the ring (Zang) anybody who wants to help, put the money in the special pot during this traditional charity ceremony.
In each Varzesh-e-Bastani session, the Morshed accompanies all the exercises with chanting the epics and poems that describe the braveries and heavenly prowess and heroism of these Pahlevans for the good of the human beings.
5- Gowd: Is the most significant facility where all the activities of the Varzesh-e-Bastani are performed. The floor of the pit is constructed with different layers of, from bottom to top, crushed tumble weeds, a thinner cushion of dried fine straw, a thicker layer of coal ash and finally, a well packed layer of clay or argil in a way to assure softness and flexibility needed for the safety of the Bastanikars during their physical activities. The Khadem (janitor) of the Zurkhaneh makes regularly sure that this floor is sufficiently well packed and humid before the start of every session. To eliminate the detrimental effects of dust and humidity, especially in an indoor and relatively small space such as the Zurkhaneh, the methods of construction of Gowd’s floor are rapidly approaching the ones used in constructing the other sport activities areas like the contemporary running or playing fields.
6- Morshed: Is an experienced Bastanikars who, at the same time, is a well-educated man who also has some talents in music. He is especially competent in providing the different rhythms that are needed for directing the various exercises of a Varzesh-e-Bastani practice session. He does this job by chanting the epic poems and couplets and by playing the Zarb and Zang that he has at hand. Some times there are two Morsheds who in harmony with each other direct the practice session.
7- Zarb: Is a large hemispheric wooden drum, with a skin of deer, stretched over the larger end of it. Zarb is used to give the Indispensable rhythm and cadence for all the exercises through-out the session.
8- Zang: Zang is a bell that hangs within reach of Morshed’s hand. Morshed will play the Zang for purposes such as signal the beginning or the end of an exercise, attract the attention for making an announcement, honor the presence of a Pahlevan, guest, or a social personality and communicate with the Miandar and the other athletes who are performing in the Gowd.
9- Miandar: Miandar performs at the central part of the Gowd. He is the key person and leader of session.
10- Pishkesvat: Is a Bastanikar, who is characterized by a high degree of expertise, experience and seniority. He also assumes the responsibility of teaching the techniques of Varzesh-e-Bastani to younger Bastanikars.
12- Nocheh or Nokhasteh: Is a beginner (novice) in Varzesh-e-Bastani. He is ordinarily under the direction and the apprenticeship of a Pishkesvat. This is the lowest rank in the hierarchy of Varzesh-e-Bastani. The highest rank in Zurkhaneh is Saheb-e Taj (owner of the crown). It is noticeable that the one who is the first to start each one of the individual exercises is the Nocheh who is at the bottom line in seniority. The last athlete who will finish the exercise bout in the individual events is the Miandar.
13- Sar-Dam: Sar means “place” and Dam refers to “speaking or chanting”. From the technical standpoint, this is the Morshed’s rostrum from where he leads the practice session by his chants, Zarb and Zang.
14- Takhteh-Shena: Is a plank that is used for the different types of push up exercises particular to this traditional sport.
15- Meel: Is a big chunk of hard and heavy wood related with the idea of using it somewhat like Indian clubs, however, it differs with them in a number of ways. First, its base is the largest part of it. Second, it is considerably longer, larger and heavier. Third, Meels are used primarily for weight training. Fourth, one pair of Meels is necessary for exercise in Varzesh-e-Bastani. Fifth, the handle of the Meel is a cylindrical piece of hard wood that is fixed very firmly on the top of the Meel.
16- Kabbadeh: Is a bow shaped iron instrument used for weight training in Varzeshe-Bastani. On this instrument in Zoorkhaneh, the string has been replaced by a heavy chain which generally is made of 16 links. In each link there are approximately six metallic discs, each one measuring about the size of a small saucer. Kabbadehs weigh mostly between 11 to 50kg. This weight can be adjusted to athlete’s ability by removing or adding chain links or discs.
17- Sang: Is a huge rectangular piece of hard wood that has some similarities with the ancient shields used to ward off blows or missiles. The side of the rectangular that is moved near the floor throughout the exercise is gently arched. There is a hole at the central part of each Sang with a bar across it that is used as a hand grip around this opening is covered by a soft material to protect the hand. Sangs are used for weight training and one pair of them is necessary for the exercise.
18- Shelang-Takhteh: Is a plank of hard wood. This equipment is used for stretching exercises, muscular endurance and agility of the legs, aimed at running speed and endurance. This is a heavy exercise and 40 to 50 repetitions are considered to be a high performance in this event.
19- Shalvar-e-Bastani: Is a knee-breeches pantaloon that is typical clothing for the Bastanikars. This clothing is made of either leader or of heavy embroidered cloth decorated with elaborate designs and scenes. The firmness and resistance of this kind of trousers make it possible for the athletes to use it as a dependable grip during traditional wrestling of Varzesh-e-Bastani.
20- Kamarband: Is a large and heavy leader belt made especially for Shalvar-e-Bastani. This belt provides a more dependable grip for wrestling specific to Varzesh-e-Bastani.
21- Koshti (Wrestling): Similar to the Sang and the Kabbadeh exercises, Koshti is an individual event that is performed in the Gowd only by a few Bastanicars who are scheduled for the exercise session. The type of Koshti that is performed in Zoorkhaneh looks much like the Greek style wrestling where only the upper body of the wrestler gets involved in the technical pinning and holds of the combat.

Equipments and Instruments zurkhaneh

Current status:

The sport is still being practised. International Zurkhaneh Sports Federation (IZSF), connecting 22 countries involved in the sport, spreads the knowledge of Zurkhaneh. It publishes the rules and broadcasts recent events. Apart from frequent trainings and unofficial games, the official competition (World championships, Europe championships, Asia championships, World Cup and many others) organized by federation, is being held every few months. Apart from the aforementioned competitions, there are also one held for senior, junior or disabled contestants.
In recent years, Zurkhaneh is becoming more and more popular in countries neighbouring Iran, especially in Iraq or Afghanistan. The huge tournament took place in May 2017 in Baku within the framework of 4th Islamic Solidarity Games. Iran won the team competition category.


International Zurkhaneh Sports Federation (IZSF)
No 8, Sepidar St, Africa Ave, Tehran, I.R.IRAN Postal Code: 1518943865
Tel :+98-21-88203115
Fax :+98-21-88203314
IZSC logo
Asian Zurkhaneh Sports Confederation (AZSC)
Tel : +82 51 245 5600
FAX : +82 51 245 5700
E-mail : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Asian Zurkhaneh Sport Confederation logo

Nepal Zurkhaneh Sport Association

Nepal Zurkhaneh Sports Association logo

Baltic Zurkhaneh Sports Federation
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Baltic Zurkhaneh Sports Federation


Portugal Zurkhaneh Sports Association
Portugal Zurkhaneh Sports Association logo


Uganda Zurkhanes Sports Association

uganda zurkhaneh sports association logo

Zurkhaneh Sri Lanka

Kenya Zurkhaneh Sports Federation

Zurkhaneh Ferdousi München e.V. -


Sources of information :

Abbās Kamandi, Varzeš wa sargoḏadšt-e varzeš-e bāstāni-e Kordestān, Sanandaj, 1984
Abassi, Mehdi, Tarikh-e Koshtigari dar Iran (The History of Wrestling in Iran). Tehran 1984
Amirtash, A.M., Zoorkhaneh and Varzesh-E-Bastani. Journal of Movement Sciences and Sports, 2008, 5(1), 59–73
Amirtash, A.M., Varzesh-e-Bastani and Zoorkhaneh. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Microfish Publication, 1980
Angelo Piemontese, Il capitolo sui pahlavān delle Badāyiʿ al-Waqāyiʿ di Vāsfi, AIUON, N.S. 16, 1966, pp. 207-20
Ayria, J., M.S. Thesis: A study of the Persian gymnasium, Zoorkhaneh. C.A. San Joseh, San Joseh State University, 1975
Babayan, S., Zoorkhaneh. Tehran, Iran: Milli, Inc., 1958
Bahar, M., Iranian Mythology. Tehran, Iran, Foundation of Iranian Culture, 1973
Bank Melli, Activity in the Zoorkhaneh, Tehran, Iran: Author, 1971
Bayza’i's, Partaw, Thrtkh-i varzish-i biastint-yi Irirn: Zuikhimnah. Tehran, 1958
Beazaie Kashani, P., Iranian ancient sport, Zoorkhaneh. Tehran, Iran: Heidari, 1958
Behmanesh, A., History: wrestling and myth in Iran. Olympic Review, 307, 209-211, 1993
Devlin Daneshforouz, The History and Traditions of The Zurkhaneh -
Dosabhai, F. K., History of the Parsis, including their manners, customs, religion and Present position, London, Britain: Macmillian and co., 1884
Ensafpour, G., The culture and the history of the Zoorkhaneh and social groups of its Members, Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Art and Culture, The Anthropological Center of Iran, 1974
Ensafpour, Gholamreza. History and Culture of Zoorkhaneh. Tehran: Anthropology Research Essay Collection: Survey and Study on Zoorkhanes of Tehran. Anthropology Research Center, 1975
Farzad Nekoogar, Traditional Iranian Martial Arts (Varzesh-e Pahlavani), Menlo Park, 1996 (
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Zurkhaneh -
Zurkhaneh (article in Polish) -
Pahlevani and Zoorkhaneh Rituals –
Introducing Iranian Zoorkhaneh and Pahlevani traditions -
ZUR-ḴĀNA, Encyclopaedia Iranica -
Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals -











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