Asia

Sumo (Japan)

Taekkyeon (Korea)

  • Name of sport (game): Taekkyeon
  • Name in native language: Taekkyeon
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Korea

  • History:

    Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art with a dance-like appearance in some aspects. A Goguryeo mural painting at the Samsil tomb shows Taekkyeon was practiced as early as the Three Kingdoms Era and transmitted from Goguryeo to Shilla. Taekkyon derives from an earlier art called Subak, which split into two: yusul and Taekkyon, during the early Joseon Dynasty. Its practice never seems to have been widespread within the Korean peninsula, but it was practiced frequently around Hanyang, the capital city of the Chosun Dynasty. At the height of its popularity, even the king practiced Taekkyon. Unfortunately for the people of Korea, the king had to out-lawed Taekkyon matches due to the fact that matches were quite frequent and was mainly use for gambling purposes. In the end the king decided to just make Taekkyon only for military use to prevent the people from gambling their wives and houses away.
    Taekkyon took a severe blow when Neo-Confucianism grew in popularity, and then the Japanese occupation nearly made the art extinct. The last “Old-School” Taekkyon practitioner, Song Duk-Ki, maintained his practice of the Art throughout the Japanese occupation and subsequently laid the seeds for the arts’ regeneration. He became the first human cultural asset in taekkyon.

  • Description:

    Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art that makes use of fluid, rhythmic dance-like movements to strike or trip up an opponent. The graceful movements of a well-trained Taekkyeon performer are gentle and circular rather than straight and rigid, but can explode with enormous flexibility and strength. The feet play as important a role as the hands. In spite of its gentle impression, Taekkyeon is an effective martial art highlighting a broad variety of offensive and defensive skills employing all available fighting methods. It also teaches consideration: a skilled Taekkyeon practitioner can rapidly dominate an opponent, but a true master knows how to make an opponent withdraw without incurring damage.

    Unlike many hard, external Korean arts which are best suited for younger students, Taekkyon can be practiced well into old age. Because all movements are intended to harmonize with the structure of the human body, techniques are natural and minimally stressful. Part of the reason for this stems from the art's abandonment of normal warm-up and stretching exercises. Instead, the basic techniques, interspersed with brief series of hand pats along the length of tight muscles, provide the necessary muscle stretch and circulation boost. Song Duk-ki proved Taekkyon's therapeutic side effects by training daily until the age of 94. Shin Han-seung continued until he died at the age of 60.
    Like other martial arts, Taekkyon teaches the use of "ki" or internal energy, to augment physical power. One method for releasing "ki" is through a "kihap", the forceful exhalation of air at the moment a technique is performed. However, Taekkyon's "kihap" differs from that of all other Korean and Japanese arts. Instead of a short, loud explosion of noise, Taekkyon students make a soft but forceful "eek eh" sound which, they claim, comes from the traditional Korean fighting arts.
    A basic principle of Taekkyon sparring is to attack hard with soft, and soft with hard. To illustrate, a punch to an opponent's jaw, while undoubtedly effective, will inflict considerable pain on the puncher. weapon such as the knee or elbow.
    More sensible is to strike a hard target with a softer weapon-the palm heel, for example. Conversely, Taekkyon teaches that an attack to the fleshy mid-section is more effective if the striker uses a hard weapon such as the knee or elbow. Lee Yong-bok explains that, unlike most other fighting styles which advocate performing a linear technique and then finishing it, Taekkyon teaches students to continue techniques past their potential point of impact.
    In a violent encounter, Taekkyon strategy teaches that a person should stand directly in front of his attacker and move with a rhythmic motion that allows a quick, evasive slip to either side. In contrast to the linear movements in Taekwondo and other Korean arts, the Taekkyon student's body constantly moves forward and backward, to the left and to the right. Lee Yong-bok describes this strategy as the first skill of Taekkyon: staying away from the attacker's weapons.
    According to this logic, evasion is superior to blocking because, as long as an opponent's attack fails to make contact, his power does not matter. Taekkyon fighters move with a rhythm which beginning students sometimes learn while traditional Korean drums and bamboo flutes keep time. This rhythmical motion into and out of attack range further differentiates the style from all others. Similar movements have been found in the "tal chum", the centuries-old Korean mask dance. Herein lies another of Taekkyon's differences: During this continuous body motion, the arms constantly move up and down, out and back, and from side to side, confusing the opponent as to exact target locations. When combined with nimble footwork in four directions and occasional evasive jumping, a Taekkyon stylist becomes more difficult to hit.
    Taekkyon's kicks have proved so effective that the style does not even include among its hand strikes a traditional jab or reverse punch. The kicks are so legendary that, for hundreds of years the name of the art was synonymous with foot-fighting. However, the kicks bear little resemblance to the typical spinning and jumping maneuvers glorified in tournaments and film. Instead, Taekkyon leg techniques are simple and direct, focusing on linear moves but including limited usage of circular and spinning kicks. Taekkyon has traditionally emphasized stepping and stamping techniques directed at the opponent's lower legs and feet.
    In contrast to the intensity of Taekkyon when it existed only for combat, modern practice limits the damage that may be inflicted upon fellow students.
    Lee explains the traditional rules of friendly Taekkyon competition, probably developed within the past 100 years, as follows:Custom (greeting and bowing) comes first. Pressure-point attacks are not allowed. Light to medium contact is allowed. Leg-grabbing and take downs are allowed. Kicking above the neck is allowed. Trapping with the hands is allowed. Jumping and kicking with both legs is allowed. Knocking out one leg with a kick is allowed.
    Under the system Shin Han-seung systematized, Taekkyon training progresses through three steps. The first is "honja ikhigi", or training by oneself in basic movements and techniques. The second is called "maju megigi", or practice of more difficult and realistic techniques with a partner. The third is "gyeon jugi", or sparring. It teaches what can only be learned in simulated combat when the defender does not know his opponent's actions or reactions.

  • Current status:

    There are approximately fifty recognized practitioners of Taekkyeon at present, and the Korean Taekkyeon Association plays a significant role in the transmission and promotion of this traditional martial art.택견 (Taekkyeon, a traditional Korean martial art).

  • Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

    As a part of seasonal farming-related traditions, Taekkyeon serves to facilitate community integration, and as a sport accessible to all plays a major role in promoting public health. Taekkyeon is also practiced by a great number of people as a daily activity.

  • Sources of information :

    Articles:
    https://kelleyswanberg.com/korea/not-taekwondo-the-real-korean-martial-art/
    https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/taekkyeon-a-traditional-korean-martial-art-00452
    https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Taekkyeon
    http://www.parandeul.co.kr/taek_overview.htm
    Photos:
    https://ich.unesco.org/en/13-representative-list-00411&include=slideshow.inc.php&id=00452#https://ich.unesco.org/img/photo/thumb/07567-HUG.jpg

    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTOA8P6qr5M
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ga1Im-3ZtH8

    The information contained in the article comes from the following sources:
    http://heritageinkorea.kr/the-exploration-of-the-taekkyeon-a-traditional-korean-martial-art/
    https://martialartsblogaroundtheworld.wordpress.com/2012/04/24/taekkyeon/
    http://www.parandeul.co.kr/taek_overview.htm

    Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
    https://kelleyswanberg.com/korea/not-taekwondo-the-real-korean-martial-art/
    https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/nation/2021/05/281_267823.html
    https://manchester-martial-arts.co.uk/taekkyeon/
    https://martialartsblogaroundtheworld.wordpress.com/2012/04/24/taekkyeon/
    https://awakeningfighters.com/awakepedia/taekkyeon/
    http://www.parandeul.co.kr/taek_overview.htm

  • Gallery:

Tang Soo Do (Korea)

  • Name of sport (game): Tang Soo Do
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Korea

  • History:

    Korean martial arts developed approximately 2000 years ago when Korea was then divided into three kingdoms: Koguryo in the North, Paekche in the Southwest, and Silla in the Southeast. During this period, martial arts were very primitive until Korea was first unified under the Silla Dynasty (688-935AD). During the Silla Dynasty, the Hwa Rang Dan (flowering youth) warriors combined the philosophy of the monk Won Kwang, who was the originator of the principles of our own Tang Soo Do, with Soo Bahk Ki (the art of foot and body fighting) to form the traditional art of Soo Bahk Do.In 918 AD, the Koryo Dynasty was established and it’s militaristic rule strongly promoted martial spirit and development of the Korean martial arts. The Yi Dynasty (1392-1910 AD) followed and assured the continuation of Korean martial arts when the martial arts book, Mooye Dobo Tongji was written. During the Japanese occupation of Korea from 1909 to 1945, the Korean people were forbidden to practice martial arts resulting in many Soo Bahk Do practitioners going underground to secretly continue their training.

    The man who developed Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan, Grandmaster Hwang Kee (1914–2002) studied Tae Kyun (another Korean system not related to Tae Kwon Do) and Soo Bahk Do at the age of 22. In1936, he travelled to northern China where he studied a Chinese martial art called the Tang system and combined it with Tae Kyun and Soo Bahk Do. He then named the organization the Korea Soo Bahk Do Association, also known as Tang Soo Do and after World War II on November 9th, 1945, training restrictions were lifted and he established the Moo Duk Kwan where Tang Soo Do was taught.In 1965, the Korean Government established the Korea Tae Kwon Do Association in an attempt to unite the Korean Martial Arts under one name and develop the sporting aspects of martial arts. However, Grandmaster Hwang Kee and most Tang Soo Do practitioners chose to remain independent traditionalists rather than become part of the sport oriented Tae Kwon Do organization.The techniques of Tang Soo Do are based on the ancient Korean kicking style of Tae Kyun, and the soft flowing movements come from the northern and southern Chinese systems.

    Tang Soo Do is a classical martial art with practical self-defence applications and its main goal is to develop every aspect of one self. The practitioner is aiming to become a balanced person who totally combines his intellectual mind with demanding physical training. This results in becoming a person who is in control of one self and able to deal with the outside world in a calm manner.
    Source: https://tangsoodo.com.au/tang-soo-do-history/

  • Description:

    5 codes of Tang Soo Do
    Loyalty to your country
    Obedience to parents and elders
    Honour friendship
    No retreat in battle
    In fighting, choose with sense and honour

    Tenets of Tang Soo Do
    Integrity
    Concentration
    Perserverance
    Respect and Obedience
    Self-Control
    Humility
    Indomitable Spirit

    Eight Key Concepts of Tang Soo Do
    Yong Gi – Courage
    Chung Shin Tong Il – Concentration
    In Neh – Endurance
    Ching Jik – Honesty
    Kyum Son – Humilty
    Him Cho Chung – Control of Power
    Shin Chook – Tension Relaxation
    Wan Gup – Speed Control

    source: https://tangsoodo.com.au/tang-soo-do-history/

  • Contacts:

    Logo world tsang soo do association
    World Tang Soo Do Association
    2436 Hanford Road, Burlington, NC 27215
    Website: https://www.worldtangsoodo.com/
    Fb: https://www.facebook.com/WTSDAOfficial/
    Tel: +1 336-223-0056
    Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    International tsang soo do federation
    International Tang Soo Do Federation (UK)
    Website: http://www.tangsoodo.uk/
    Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    Tel.: +44 7725 750652
    Fb: https://www.facebook.com/InternationalTangSooDoFederationuk/

    logo european tsang soo do association
    European Tang Soo Do Association
    Tel: +353 (0) 876969215
    Website: https://www.europeantsd.net/about-us.html

  • Sources of information :

    Articles:
    https://budodragon.com/what-is-tang-soo-do-a-look-into-the-history-of-the-korean-martial-art/
    https://www.liveabout.com/history-style-guide-tang-soo-do-2308284

    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7s1Q_ySoGkM
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8swnWyzDc3w
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jy6P_uvkmBw
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3fq84nylEQ

     

    The information contained in the article comes from the following sources:
    https://tangsoodo.com.au/tang-soo-do-history/

    Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
    https://blackbeltmag.com/power-vs-speed-the-evolution-of-tang-soo-do-fighting
    http://carymartialarts.com/tang-soo-do/

  • Gallery:

Tari caci (Indonesia)

  • Name of sport (game): Tari caci
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Flores Island (Tanipa), Indonesia

    Flores Island in East Nusa Tenggara is not only known for its charming natural charm, but also for its traditional arts. One of the most prominent arts is the Caci Dance.
    There are many Caci Dance hermitages in the Manggarai area. However, specifically for West Manggarai Regency, the Riangtana Tiwa hermitage, in Liang Ndara Village, is a well-known association and is a reference for tourists who want to see the Caci Dance performance live.

  • History:

    The Caci Dance exists since the Manggarai Kingdom ruled Flores Island.
    From its culture, Caci Dance is a sacred traditional art with the concept of war dance. Citing its history, this dance was inspired by inter-regional youth power struggles that have been carried out for generations, until it later became a part of the culture and sacred arts on the island of Flores.

  • Description:

    Unlike other regional dances in general, Caci Dance only involves two male dancers. The movement shown is in the form of a fight using whips and shields as weapons. The performers of this dance consist of two men who are armed with whips (larik) and carry shields (toda). The length of the whip can reach 2 meters. The shield is made from dried buffalo or pig skin. The sides of the shield are covered with rattan and provided with support on the inside as a handle.
    In the performance, the Caci dance opens with the Manggarai danding or Tandak dance. Before competing, each player first performs warm-up movements. Each dancer moves their body similar to the movement of a horse. While dancing, caci players sing regional songs to challenge their opponents.
    While singing a traditional song, the two dancers will show each other back and forth movements like Capoeira from Brazil. When the warning is released, one of the two will attack with a whip.
    Caci dance has its own rules. One of them is that the players can only hit the upper body such as the arms, back and chest. The caci player may only hit the opponent's body from the waist up. Meanwhile, the area from the waist down where a hanging piece of cloth is marked should not be hit.
    So, high sportsmanship is something that is shown through this dance. It's not just about attacking, Caci Dance requires the dancers to have a perfect technique to repel.
    With agility and lightness, the attacker slams his whip into the opponent's body. While the opponent blocks the whip with his shield. This game of skill is played with high sportsmanship.
    The player is declared defeated if the whip with thin buffalo skin attached to the end hits the body, especially the eyes.
    Every player is at risk of being hit. Even though the body was injured from the slash, there were no grudges between the players. The wounds suffered are actually considered a symbol of the courage and masculinity of a caci player.
    The clothing used includes a panggal (mask) on the head, tubi rapa, the face is wrapped with cloth, white trousers are worn combined with songke cloth and the dancer's upper body is left open during the caci dance. All the clothes worn by dancers have a function, meaning and true values for the Manggarai people.

    Weapons used in the Caci Dance
    Obraz2Source: https://kupang.tribunnews.com/2017/08/03/tari-caci-bukan-sekedar-darah-dan-luka-inilah-fakta-lainnya-yang-perlu-anda-ketahui

    Symbolism of the Manggarai Caci Dance Attributes

    Clothes
    The clothes used in the form of white trousers and black traditional cloth have a sacred symbol, which means the mystery of life.
    The dancers are bare-chested when performing this dance, but wear protection for the thighs and calves like war troops with white trousers and typical Manggarai songket sarongs, namely songke.
    The black songket sarong is wrapped around the waist to the knees to cover part of the surface of the trousers worn. At the waist, a girdle is attached, which is clothing jewelry that will sound as long as the dancer plays.

    Whip Weapon
    The whip (larik) used is made from dried buffalo or cow skin. The whip handle is made of buffalo leather. At the end of the whip, dry buffalo skin is attached which is thin and has a hard texture, usually referred to as lempa (lidi enau) which is still green (pore).

    Deterrence
    Apart from whips, dancers also use fenders, also known as koret. This koret is in the form of a shield, or what is usually called a nggiling and a bow made from bamboo woven into rattan or called aging/tereng. A round, dry leather-covered shield.

    Head Cover
    Dancers also use a head covering called a panggal. Masks or panggal are used as decorations on the head. This mask is made from buffalo skin with a hard texture and is shaped like buffalo horns.
    Its function is to protect the opponent's whip when it hits the face. Apart from that, a headband is also used to cover the dancers' faces. Even though the dancer's face is almost completely covered, he can still see the movements of the opponent in front of him.

    imagesSource: https://travelingyuk.com/tari-caci-labuan-bajo-ntt/242515/

  • Current status:

    Practiced

  • Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

    The name Caci is a summary of the words "Ca" which means one, and "Ci" which means test. Having existed since the Manggarai Kingdom ruled Flores Island, the Caci Dance has quite deep meaning, proving masculinity both in terms of courage and dexterity of men. So, extra practice is needed to master Caci Dance technique after technique.
    The Caci Dance is part of the maturation process for Flores youth until they grow up. This means that to determine the maturity level of a man in Flores, they have to go through a agility test in a one-on-one fight.
    In the eyes of the Manggarai people, men who have performed this dance are said to be labeled as adult men. He will also receive respect, both from traditional elders and Flores women.
    Uniquely, their pride lies in the many whip scars on their skin. The more whip marks there are, the more the man's rank is taken into account.
    Judging from its function, the Caci Dance is a medium or way for Manggarai men to prove their masculinity.
    Even though it is presented with elements of violence, this art has a peaceful message. Such as the spirit of sportsmanship, mutual respect, and most importantly, leaving no feelings of resentment between the fighters. The caci game also doesn't care about who loses and wins. Instead of giving rise to feelings of hostility, these fights even increase feelings of unity, brotherhood and friendship.
    In between games, traditional elders, both men and women, dance (danding) and sing (mbata) with joy while walking regularly in a circle.
    The caci game is a cultural moment that is joyful in nature and is carried out in traditional ceremonies and special events. Manggarai people consider caci to be a sacred dance, a means of human communication with its creator.
    The caci dance looks very interesting. The performance is a combination of the agility and dexterity of the dancer's body movements when competing with an opponent, the uniqueness of the clothing worn, and the beauty of the vocal art of traditional Manggarai singing.
    As a typical Flores culture, this dance is only performed on special occasions. For example, during Hang Woja (harvest season), Penti (new year ritual), traditional wedding ceremonies, and other traditional ceremonies, as well as commemorating the Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia.

  • Sources of information :

    Articles:
    https://www.pegipegi.com/travel/tari-caci-atraksi-uji-kejantanan-para-pria-khas-flores/?fbclid=IwAR0zSzI-GWiIqKxtDxGWZe-O2N9Vmkt7HvihZLh8R48LMcdRUGU96v-oEb8
    https://www.goodnewsfromindonesia.id/2020/04/30/tari-caci-seni-mencambuk-kejantanan-pemuda-flores
    https://klasika.kompas.id/baca/mengenal-tari-caci/
    https://www.tafenpah.com/2022/05/mengembalikan-makna-seni-tari-caci.html
    https://1001indonesia.net/tari-caci-atraksi-uji-ketangkasan-masyarakat-flores/
    https://labuanbajotour.com/wisata/tari-caci
    https://bajocrewtour.com/mengenal-tarian-caci-manggarai-tarian-perang-asal-tanah-flores/
    https://ohelterskelter.com/tari-caci-labuan-bajo/

    Photos:
    https://travelingyuk.com/tari-caci-labuan-bajo-ntt/242515/

    Videos:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMPYB1WgVig
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2k7ThSwxI4
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Am5taH9xWdY
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCZ_aFmNi0Q

     

    The information contained in the article comes from the following sources:
    https://www.pegipegi.com/travel/tari-caci-atraksi-uji-kejantanan-para-pria-khas-flores/?fbclid=IwAR0zSzI-GWiIqKxtDxGWZe-O2N9Vmkt7HvihZLh8R48LMcdRUGU96v-oEb8
    https://bajocrewtour.com/mengenal-tarian-caci-manggarai-tarian-perang-asal-tanah-flores/

    Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
    https://www.pegipegi.com/travel/tari-caci-atraksi-uji-kejantanan-para-pria-khas-flores/?fbclid=IwAR0zSzI-GWiIqKxtDxGWZe-O2N9Vmkt7HvihZLh8R48LMcdRUGU96v-oEb8
    https://www.goodnewsfromindonesia.id/2020/04/30/tari-caci-seni-mencambuk-kejantanan-pemuda-flores
    https://klasika.kompas.id/baca/mengenal-tari-caci/
    https://www.tafenpah.com/2022/05/mengembalikan-makna-seni-tari-caci.html
    https://1001indonesia.net/tari-caci-atraksi-uji-ketangkasan-masyarakat-flores/
    https://kupang.tribunnews.com/2017/08/03/tari-caci-bukan-sekedar-darah-dan-luka-inilah-fakta-lainnya-yang-perlu-anda-ketahui
    https://travel.kompas.com/read/2018/12/07/143356127/ternyata-ini-makna-caci-tarian-perang-yang-sakral-dari-ntt
    https://tugujatim.id/tari-caci-khas-ntt-sajikan-pertarungan-2-penari-pria/
    https://getlost.id/2021/06/29/tari-caci-ajang-pembuktian-keperkasaan-lelaki-manggarai/
    https://travelingyuk.com/tari-caci-labuan-bajo-ntt/242515/
    https://ohelterskelter.com/tari-caci-labuan-bajo/
    https://dailyvoyagers.com/blog/2016/09/27/tari-caci-manggarai-nusa-tenggara-timur/penari-tari-caci/

  • Gallery:

  • Documents:

    pdfNilai_Kesenian_Budaya_Tarian_Caci_Pada_Masyarakat_.pdf

Thirikkal race (Sri Lanka)

  • Name of sport (game): Thirikkal race
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Sri Lanka

Thoda (Pradesh, India)

  • Name of sport (game): Thoda
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Pradesh, India

  • Description:

    This remnant of martial culture is popular in the districts of Shimla, Sirmaur and Solan. Probably best described as a group demonstration sport, "thoda" is the art of archery. It takes its name from the circular wooden ball used to replace the deadly arrowhead. Bows ranging in size from three and a half to six feet are used in its practice. The archers divide themselves into groups called the "Saathis" and the "Pashi," who are reputed to represent the descendants of the Pandavas and the Kauravas who in the days of the Mahabharata frequently battled in the Valleys of Kulu and Manali. Competition takes place yearly on Baisakhi Day (April 13th and 14th which honors the Goddesses Durga and Mashoo). The event takes place on a marked fairground as both groups face each other at a distance of approximately ten yards. Each group in turn fires its arrows, targeting the opponents' leg area beneath the knee. Points are detracted for hits to other areas. The defenders may dance about, side step and kick their legs in an effort to foil accurate aim. All the while, observers cheer from the sidelines while participating teams sing and play martial music.

    Thoda is a martial art form from Himachal Pradesh, India. The sport demands excellent expertise in archery. The main weapons needed for Thoda are bows and arrows. In Thoda there are 2 groups. There are close to 500 people in one group, majority of them do no take part and are present just to cheer up the team. The two sides that take part are named as Saathi and Pashi since they are believed to be descendants of Pandavas and Kauravas. Unlike archery, the target of the competitors here is the opponents` leg; below the knee, where the opponent should aim his arrow.
    The moment the two contesting groups reach the village fairground, both the parties dance on either side of the ground, waving their swords, aglitter in the sun, and sing and dance to the stirring martial music. The Pashi group forms a chakravyuh, and blocks the Saathi group, who in turn begin to penetrate their defences. After the initial resistance, the Saathis reach the centre of the ground. The two groups stand 10 metres apart and prepare to attack. The defenders start shaking, kicking their legs to and fro with brisk movements, to thwart the accurate aim of their adversaries.
    In fact the whole concept of the sport is to create a highly energetic atmosphere with non-stop leg kicking on one-hand and constant attempts to hit the target on the other. Lightning movements and agility are the sole methods of defence. The whole competition is conducted to the lively, virile rhythm of war dance, with one side furiously sidestepping, legs kicking in all directions, and other side doing its best to place an arrow on the target. If a defender is hit on the wrong part of the body, negative points are awarded. At present, the game is played in a marked court, which ensures that a certain degree of discipline.
    Source: https://targetstudy.com/qna/what-is-thoda.html

  • Sources of information :

    Articles:
    https://targetstudy.com/qna/what-is-thoda.html

    Video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8L8j_8lPQo
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAuO_5YIOsw
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0xOTmqLsSY

     

    Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
    https://pl.pinterest.com/pin/496310821410088514/
    https://www.sportskeeda.com/slideshow/10-indian-sports-that-you-should-know-about?ref=relatedmid
    https://homegrown.co.in/article/10332/the-amazing-lesser-known-sports-of-india

  • Gallery:

Tikhy or Tikhee (Laos)

  • Name of sport (game): Tikhy or Tikhee
  • Name in native language: Tikhy or Tikhee; also called Lao hockey
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Laos

  • History:

    Tikhy is a traditional sport (similar to hockey) and is a distinctive part of an annual That Luang Festival, being an inseparable part of the celebration. The That Luang Festival is one of the most significant Buddhist festivals in Laos and takes place during lunar eclipse which occurs in October or November (depending of the cycle of lunar calendar). It is a joyous event, which is not only attended by town residents but also numerous tourists who visit Vientiane at that time.
    Pha That Luang or gold-covered Buddhist Stupa is a national symbol as well as the most important religious monument in Laos which also serves a purpose of holding the most important Festival in Vientiane Boun That Luang.

    Pha That LuangPha Than Luang

    The first event during the festival is called a "Wax Castle" procession surrounded by colourful candles, which takes place in Wat Si Muang. In the morning of the third day of the festival, people gather in the gold-covered Stupa before sunrise, in order to secure space in the monastery, where they prepare to offer an offering and a prayer. Thousands of people gather to pay respects near That Luang. A lot of participants wear their best clothes as well as various Lao outfits characteristic of ethnic groups. Both men and women wear their traditional clothes called sarong for men and sinh for women. During the festival people dance, play traditional music and sing traditional songs while gathering near the Stupa. At 7 am starts an Alms Giving Ceremony "taak Baat", when monks collect the offering from the praying people. After "taak Baat", the believers come into the Stupa in order to pray while lighting candles and incenses.
    The festival offers an occasion for many Laotians to return to their home country and visit their families to spend time together during the traditional picnic. At that time a traditional game called Tikhy takes place. Some people derive the sport from history or even a legend telling about the confrontation between the native people with the influx of administrative power symbolizing a new royal and religious order.
    Some people say that in the past horse races were being organized during the festival. The festival ends together with the full moon, when the participants gather aroung the Pha That Luang for the last time, surrounded by the procession candles, holding armfuls of flowers, incenses and candles. The end of the festival is very often celebrated with fireworks.

    tikhy in 1900Tikhi in 1900. Reproduced from Alfred Raquez, Pages laotiennes: Le- Haut-Laos, Le Moyen-Laos, Le Bas-Laos (Hanoi: F.H. Schneider, 1902)

  • Description:

    Traditional game of "tikhy" or "tikhee" is played between a team consisted of festival participants (local people) and a team consisted of civil servants, which in the past were dressed in red. The game starts with a procession, before the game starts, master of ceremonies leads the local people, holding a magbeng, to bring the ball (Louk khee) from the Town Hall where it is being stored. The modern ball is made of bamboo roots and has a spherical shape and golden colour. After that, the whole procession gather near That Luang Stupa and circle it three times. Then they bring the ball to the pitch while everyone gathers to watch the match. This is a variation of Lao hockey, in which the participants use a bamboo sticks to direct the ball into the opposite goal. It requires a certain set of skills, as the bamboo sticks are not in a perfect shape and the ball is not perfectly round and smooth. Each team consists of 50 members, half of which plays in the first part while the other halt plays in the second part. Each of them lasts 25 minutes.
    Winning the game means that the people will not suffer from hunger, while luck and prosperity will be with them for the whole year. The game is being held in a rather positive spirit in order to enhance the relation between local people and civil servants. The participants are cheered on by the crowd, which does not strain from dances and singing.

    stamp laos hockey

    stamp laos tikhy

     

  • Current status:

    The sport is being practised.

  • Sources of information :

    Tikhy - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62etfE9YJyg
    Tikhy - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lp2ZxRoOO5A

  • Gallery:

Vajra-mushti (India)

  • Name of sport (game): Vajra-mushti
  • Name in native language: Sanskrit: वज्रमुष्टि
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    India

  • History:

    The name of the martial art is derived from the Sanskrit word, Vajra, which means Thunderbolt or Diamond and is of much religious significance in both Hinduismand Buddhism; and the Sanskrit word Mushti, which means closed or clenched fist. Thus Vajra Mushti literally means Thuderbolt fist or Diamond Fist.
    The ancient Indian martial art form known as Vajra Mushti can be traced back to the 5th century. Vajra Mushti is eloquently described in the Buddharata Sutra, which is considered as the one of the earliest transcripts of the Kshatriya caste. Vajra Mushti is also described in Manasollasa of SomesvaraIII (1126-1138 CE). It was ardently practiced by a group of wrestlers, called Jyesti Malla, who would fight by holding the knuckleduster in one hand. Thus it was named Vajra Mushti.
    Source: https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm

  • Description:

    Vajra Mushti is a unique Indian martial art that incorporates various techniques of hand-to-hand combat like grappling, wrestling and striking techniques. Vajra Mushti, which literally means Thunderbolt Fist, is characterised by the utilization of a knuckleduster, a small metal weapon. The knuckleduster, also known as Vajra Mushti, usually made of animal horns, is worn on the knuckles of the fighter. The main objective of this Indian martial art form is to neutralize the opponent and counter his weapon.
    The training of Vajra Mushti is very rigorous and intensive. The practitioners were taught various types of striking techniques that have many similarities with modern martial art forms like Karate, Boxing and Kung Fu. The grappling moves are similar to Jujitsu.
    The fighters usually wore loincloth during the fight. The fundamental stance required the fighter to hold is left arm out to the front, keeping his hand open. The right arm was held beside the waist, holding the knuckleduster firmly. The fighter's left foot was placed forward and the right foot was kept in the side. This was the initial stance before the commencement of the fight. Generally the fight tournaments were held during the festival of Dussehra.
    Vajra Mushti is a no holds barred combat form, where the various strikes are aimed at crucial pressure points, called marman, to immobilize the opponent, which marks the end of the fight.
    Source: https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm

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  • Current status:

    Practiced

  • Importance (for practitioners, communities etc.):

    The name of the martial art is derived from the Sanskrit word, Vajra, which means Thunderbolt or Diamond and is of much religious significance in both Hinduismand Buddhism; and the Sanskrit word Mushti, which means closed or clenched fist. Thus Vajra Mushti literally means Thuderbolt fist or Diamond Fist.
    Source: https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm

  • Sources of information :

    Books:
    Alter, Joseph S. (1992b). The Wrestler's Body: Identity and Ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Earl Wilbraham Egerton (2002). Indian and Oriental Arms and Armour. Dover.
    Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. Kodansha.
    Alter, Joseph S. (August 1992b). The Wrestler's Body: Identity and Ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Tobias Capwell (2009). The World Encyclopedia Of Knives, Daggers And Bayonets. Anness Publishing.
    Robert Sewell (1982). A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar. Adamant Media Corporation.

    Articles:
    https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm
    https://avinashdamnalli.wordpress.com/2020/06/20/vajra-mushti-kaalaga-jatti-kalaga-dasara-2019/
    https://fairgaze.com/fgnews/vajra-mushti-a-lost-heritage-of-wrestling_71803.html

    Photos:
    https://avinashdamnalli.wordpress.com/2020/06/20/vajra-mushti-kaalaga-jatti-kalaga-dasara-2019/

    Video:
    https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=3443084539060669
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAbn4xAx4-0&t=250s
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjl5tgPJkeA

     

    The information contained in the article comes from the following sources:
    https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm

    Source of photos used in this article and gallery:
    https://avinashdamnalli.wordpress.com/2020/06/20/vajra-mushti-kaalaga-jatti-kalaga-dasara-2019/
    https://www.indianetzone.com/57/vajra_mushti.htm
    https://www.pinterest.de/pin/13792342586809053/
    https://pl.pinterest.com/pin/7881368075792529/

  • Gallery:

Vat (Vietnam)

  • Name of sport (game): Vat
  • Place of practice (continent, state, nation):

    Vietnam